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      Evidence for Daily Rhythms of the Expression of Proopiomelanocortin, Interleukin-1-Beta and Interleukin-6 in Adenopituitaries of Male Long-Evans Rats: Effect of Adjuvant Arthritis

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          Abstract

          Objective: Several interleukins (ILs) including IL-1β and IL-6 are produced in the anterior pituitary (AP) where they probably participate in the local regulation of hormone production. Immune challenge brings about the dysregulation of immune-endocrine interaction and enhanced the expression of pituitary IL-1β and IL-6. Little is known about regulation of their production, and therefore the purpose of the present work was to describe the relationship between circulating corticosterone and the mRNA expression of proopiomelanocortin (POMC), IL-1β and IL-6 in the AP during a 24-hour cycle in normal rats and rats with acute adjuvant arthritis (AA). Methods: Groups of intact male Long-Evans rats and rats 23 days after induction of AA kept on a 12-hour light/dark cycle (light on at 6:00 a.m.) were killed at 4-hour intervals starting at 2:00 p.m. Trunk blood was used for corticosterone determination by radioimmunoassay. Adenopituitaries were extracted for total RNA and the message of interest was quantitated by real-time PCR using specific primers and TaqMan probes. Parameters of rhythms were evaluated by cosinor analysis. Results: In normal rats, serum corticosterone showed a circadian rhythm with the peak at 6:00 p.m. and the nadir in the morning hours (p < 0.001). POMC mRNA in AP also showed a circadian rhythm (p < 0.05) which was inversely related to corticosterone levels. IL-1β and IL-6 expression in normal rats showed clear-cut daily rhythms (p < 0.001) with the nadirs in the dark period, in contrast to the corticosterone peak in plasma. In arthritic rats, rhythmic corticosterone secretion was suppressed with a plateau pattern of the rhythm. The mean POMC expression was higher than in controls, and the rhythm failed to be significant. IL-1β expression was suppressed by AA (p < 0.001) but the rhythm was still present (p < 0.05). The rhythmic pattern of IL-6 expression was similar to that of controls, but with higher mesor values (p < 0.05). Conclusion: These results suggest a regulatory relationship between circulating corticosterone and the expression of POMC, IL-1β and IL-6 in AP of normal rats. Arthritis induced a higher expression of POMC and IL-6 in the AP and a suppression of IL-1β mRNA during the 24-hour cycle which suggests the involvement of different regulatory mechanisms compared to normal conditions.

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          Most cited references 8

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          Circadian rhythms in RA.

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            Anti-Inflammatory Cytokines: Expression and Action in the Brain

            Transforming growth factor-β 1 (TGF-β 1 ) and interleukin (IL)-10 gene expression is equivocal in normal brain and upregulated in over a dozen central and peripheral diseases/disorders. The patterns of specific expression of cytokines differ in these diseases. Published data indicate that these cytokines are produced by and act on both neurons and glial cells. Although their actions are commonly viewed as ‘anti-inflammatory’, they protect neurons and downregulate the responses of glial cells to diseases/disorders in the absence of inflammation. Their actions counterbalance the actions of elevated IL-1 and/or tumor necrosis factor-α to maintain homeostasis. Their therapeutic potential will be realized by improving our understanding of their place in neural cytokine networks.
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              Age-dependent effect of Freund's adjuvant on 24-hour rhythms in plasma prolactin, growth hormone, thyrotropin, insulin, follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone and testosterone in rats.

              The effect of Freund's adjuvant administration on 24-hour changes of plasma prolactin, growth hormone (GH), thyrotropin (TSH), insulin, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH) and testosterone were studied in young (2 months) and aged (18 months) male Wistar rats. Rats were injected s.c. with Freund's adjuvant or adjuvant's vehicle and, 18 days later, they were killed at 6 different time intervals throughout a 24-hour cycle to measure circulating hormone levels by specific RIAs. Young rats receiving adjuvant's vehicle exhibited significant time-of-day-dependent variations in plasma TSH, LH and testosterone, with maximal levels at 1300 h, 0100 h and 1700 h, respectively. Prolactin and insulin levels, analyzed globally in a factorial ANOVA, showed significant time-of-day changes with maximal levels at 1300 - 1700 h and 2100 h, respectively. The daily rhythms in plasma LH and testosterone found in young rats were not longer observed in Freund's adjuvant-injected rats, while as far as TSH, a second peak was observed at 0100 h after Freund's adjuvant administration. Twenty-four hour rhythms in circulating TSH, LH and testosterone were blunted in old rats receiving either Freund's adjuvant or its vehicle. Aged rats exhibited significantly higher circulating levels of prolactin, and lower levels of GH, TSH, FSH and testosterone. The results indicate that secretion of prolactin, GH, TSH, FSH and testosterone are age-dependent, as are the responses of TSH, LH and testosterone to Freund's adjuvant administration.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                NIM
                Neuroimmunomodulation
                10.1159/issn.1021-7401
                Neuroimmunomodulation
                S. Karger AG
                1021-7401
                1423-0216
                2004
                August 2004
                20 August 2004
                : 11
                : 5
                : 316-322
                Affiliations
                aDepartment of Normal, Pathological and Clinical Physiology, Third Medical Faculty, Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic; bDepartment of Animal Physiology and Ethology, Comenius University, Bratislava, Slovak Republic; cClinical Department, German Research Institute, Heinrich Heine University, Düsseldorf, Germany
                Article
                79412 Neuroimmunomodulation 2004;11:316–322
                10.1159/000079412
                15316242
                © 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 2, Tables: 1, References: 27, Pages: 7
                Categories
                Original Paper

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