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      The Social Psychology of Stigma

      1 , 1
      Annual Review of Psychology
      Annual Reviews

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          Abstract

          This chapter addresses the psychological effects of social stigma. Stigma directly affects the stigmatized via mechanisms of discrimination, expectancy confirmation, and automatic stereotype activation, and indirectly via threats to personal and social identity. We review and organize recent theory and empirical research within an identity threat model of stigma. This model posits that situational cues, collective representations of one's stigma status, and personal beliefs and motives shape appraisals of the significance of stigma-relevant situations for well-being. Identity threat results when stigma-relevant stressors are appraised as potentially harmful to one's social identity and as exceeding one's coping resources. Identity threat creates involuntary stress responses and motivates attempts at threat reduction through coping strategies. Stress responses and coping efforts affect important outcomes such as self-esteem, academic achievement, and health. Identity threat perspectives help to explain the tremendous variability across people, groups, and situations in responses to stigma.

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          Most cited references134

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          Racial Differences in Physical and Mental Health: Socio-economic Status, Stress and Discrimination.

          This article examines the extent to which racial differences in socio-economic status (SES), social class and acute and chronic indicators of perceived discrimination, as well as general measures of stress can account for black-white differences in self-reported measures of physical and mental health. The observed racial differences in health were markedly reduced when adjusted for education and especially income. However, both perceived discrimination and more traditional measures of stress are related to health and play an incremental role in accounting for differences between the races in health status. These findings underscore the need for research efforts to identify the complex ways in which economic and non-economic forms of discrimination relate to each other and combine with socio-economic position and other risk factors and resources to affect health.
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            Conceptualizing Stigma

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              Stereotype Threat and Women's Math Performance

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Annual Review of Psychology
                Annu. Rev. Psychol.
                Annual Reviews
                0066-4308
                1545-2085
                February 01 2005
                February 01 2005
                : 56
                : 1
                : 393-421
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Psychology, University of California, Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, California 93105;,
                Article
                10.1146/annurev.psych.56.091103.070137
                15709941
                328306a1-492d-4b5d-8837-c4e03fba91e7
                © 2005
                History

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