Due to frequent parenteral contact with blood transfusions hemodialysis patients are prone to acquire hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. To determine the role of HCV infection we investigated the prevalence of antibodies to HCV in 188 hemodialysis patients. The prevalence of antibodies to HCV was 7.4%. As compared to anti-HCV-negative patients, anti-HCV-positive patients had slightly elevated transaminases which were independent of the presence of markers for hepatitis B virus infection. We conclude that HCV infection is common among dialysis patients.