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      Bioactive Volatiles From Push-Pull Companion Crops Repel Fall Armyworm and Attract Its Parasitoids

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          Abstract

          Fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda, is a serious invasive pest in Africa but “Push-Pull” companion cropping can substantially reduce infestation. Here, we elucidate the underpinning chemical ecology mechanisms. We hypothesized that companion crop volatiles repel herbivores (push) while attracting natural enemies (pull). Headspace volatiles collected from companion plants ( Desmodium intortum, Desmodium uncinatum, Brachiaria Mulato II) were used in bioassays and electrophysiological recordings with S. frugiperda and parasitoid wasps. Insect populations, plant damage and herbivore parasitism were assessed in field plots. Coupled GC-electroantennogram (GC-EAG) recordings showed robust responses to certain aromatic and terpenoid volatile compounds. In wind tunnel bioassays, maize volatiles mixed with Desmodium volatiles were less attractive to moths than maize alone. In oviposition bioassays, S. frugiperda laid significantly fewer eggs on maize when Desmodium volatiles were present. Conversely, in an olfactometer bioassay, parasitoid wasps were attracted to the scent of both Desmodium spp. (intercrop) and the Brachiaria border crop. Our data provide evidence of the mechanisms underpinning reduced S. frugiperda infestation in the Push-Pull companion cropping system, i.e., volatiles from companion crops repel S. frugiperda while attracting its parasitoid natural enemies. These findings explain why Push-Pull field plots had fewer S. frugiperda larvae and lower crop damage than monocropped maize.

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          MetaboAnalyst 4.0: towards more transparent and integrative metabolomics analysis

          Abstract We present a new update to MetaboAnalyst (version 4.0) for comprehensive metabolomic data analysis, interpretation, and integration with other omics data. Since the last major update in 2015, MetaboAnalyst has continued to evolve based on user feedback and technological advancements in the field. For this year's update, four new key features have been added to MetaboAnalyst 4.0, including: (1) real-time R command tracking and display coupled with the release of a companion MetaboAnalystR package; (2) a MS Peaks to Pathways module for prediction of pathway activity from untargeted mass spectral data using the mummichog algorithm; (3) a Biomarker Meta-analysis module for robust biomarker identification through the combination of multiple metabolomic datasets and (4) a Network Explorer module for integrative analysis of metabolomics, metagenomics, and/or transcriptomics data. The user interface of MetaboAnalyst 4.0 has been reengineered to provide a more modern look and feel, as well as to give more space and flexibility to introduce new functions. The underlying knowledgebases (compound libraries, metabolite sets, and metabolic pathways) have also been updated based on the latest data from the Human Metabolome Database (HMDB). A Docker image of MetaboAnalyst is also available to facilitate download and local installation of MetaboAnalyst. MetaboAnalyst 4.0 is freely available at http://metaboanalyst.ca.
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            Defensive function of herbivore-induced plant volatile emissions in nature.

            Herbivore attack is known to increase the emission of volatiles, which attract predators to herbivore-damaged plants in the laboratory and agricultural systems. We quantified volatile emissions from Nicotiana attenuata plants growing in natural populations during attack by three species of leaf-feeding herbivores and mimicked the release of five commonly emitted volatiles individually. Three compounds (cis-3-hexen-1-ol, linalool, and cis-alpha-bergamotene) increased egg predation rates by a generalist predator; linalool and the complete blend decreased lepidopteran oviposition rates. As a consequence, a plant could reduce the number of herbivores by more than 90% by releasing volatiles. These results confirm that indirect defenses can operate in nature.
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              The Statistical Analysis of Compositional Data

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution
                Front. Ecol. Evol.
                Frontiers Media SA
                2296-701X
                April 11 2022
                April 11 2022
                : 10
                Article
                10.3389/fevo.2022.883020
                34121957-1c9f-4688-b830-ac6dd5c2f7cc
                © 2022

                Free to read

                https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

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