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      3D Printed Absorber for Capturing Chemotherapy Drugs before They Spread through the Body

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          Despite efforts to develop increasingly targeted and personalized cancer therapeutics, dosing of drugs in cancer chemotherapy is limited by systemic toxic side effects. We have designed, built, and deployed porous absorbers for capturing chemotherapy drugs from the bloodstream after these drugs have had their effect on a tumor, but before they are released into the body where they can cause hazardous side effects. The support structure of the absorbers was built using 3D printing technology. This structure was coated with a nanostructured block copolymer with outer blocks that anchor the polymer chains to the 3D printed support structure and a middle block that has an affinity for the drug. The middle block is polystyrenesulfonate which binds to doxorubicin, a widely used and effective chemotherapy drug with significant toxic side effects. The absorbers are designed for deployment during chemotherapy using minimally invasive image-guided endovascular surgical procedures. We show that the introduction of the absorbers into the blood of swine models enables the capture of 64 ± 6% of the administered drug (doxorubicin) without any immediate adverse effects. Problems related to blood clots, vein wall dissection, and other biocompatibility issues were not observed. This development represents a significant step forward in minimizing toxic side effects of chemotherapy.


          This study describes the development of 3D printed porous absorbers for capturing excess chemotherapy drugs that are not taken up by the targeted tumor to prevent toxic side effects.

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          Additive manufacturing processes such as 3D printing use time-consuming, stepwise layer-by-layer approaches to object fabrication. We demonstrate the continuous generation of monolithic polymeric parts up to tens of centimeters in size with feature resolution below 100 micrometers. Continuous liquid interface production is achieved with an oxygen-permeable window below the ultraviolet image projection plane, which creates a "dead zone" (persistent liquid interface) where photopolymerization is inhibited between the window and the polymerizing part. We delineate critical control parameters and show that complex solid parts can be drawn out of the resin at rates of hundreds of millimeters per hour. These print speeds allow parts to be produced in minutes instead of hours.
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                Author and article information

                ACS Cent Sci
                ACS Cent Sci
                ACS Central Science
                American Chemical Society
                09 January 2019
                27 March 2019
                : 5
                : 3
                : 419-427
                []Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of California , Berkeley, California 94720, United States
                Energy Storage and Distributed Resources Division, §Joint Center for Energy Storage Research (JCESR), Materials Sciences Division, Advanced Light Source Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory , Berkeley, California 94720, United States
                [# ]Department of Radiology, School of Medicine, University of California , San Francisco, California 94110, United States
                []Carbon, Inc. , 1089 Mills Way, Redwood City, California 94063, United States
                []Department of Chemistry, University of North Carolina , Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599, United States
                []Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, North Carolina State University , Raleigh, North Carolina 27695, United States
                Author notes
                [* ]Phone: (650) 285-6307; (919) 962-2166. E-mail: joe@ 123456carbon3d.com ; desimone@ 123456unc.edu .
                [* ]Phone: (415) 206-6607. E-mail: Steven.Hetts@ 123456ucsf.edu .
                [* ]Phone: (510) 642-8973. E-mail: nbalsara@ 123456berkeley.edu .
                Copyright © 2019 American Chemical Society

                This is an open access article published under an ACS AuthorChoice License, which permits copying and redistribution of the article or any adaptations for non-commercial purposes.

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