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      Gene Ontology: tool for the unification of biology

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          Abstract

          Genomic sequencing has made it clear that a large fraction of the genes specifying the core biological functions are shared by all eukaryotes. Knowledge of the biological role of such shared proteins in one organism can often be transferred to other organisms. The goal of the Gene Ontology Consortium is to produce a dynamic, controlled vocabulary that can be applied to all eukaryotes even as knowledge of gene and protein roles in cells is accumulating and changing. To this end, three independent ontologies accessible on the World-Wide Web (http://www.geneontology.org) are being constructed: biological process, molecular function and cellular component.

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          Most cited references34

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          The COG database: a tool for genome-scale analysis of protein functions and evolution.

          Rational classification of proteins encoded in sequenced genomes is critical for making the genome sequences maximally useful for functional and evolutionary studies. The database of Clusters of Orthologous Groups of proteins (COGs) is an attempt on a phylogenetic classification of the proteins encoded in 21 complete genomes of bacteria, archaea and eukaryotes (http://www. ncbi.nlm. nih.gov/COG). The COGs were constructed by applying the criterion of consistency of genome-specific best hits to the results of an exhaustive comparison of all protein sequences from these genomes. The database comprises 2091 COGs that include 56-83% of the gene products from each of the complete bacterial and archaeal genomes and approximately 35% of those from the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome. The COG database is accompanied by the COGNITOR program that is used to fit new proteins into the COGs and can be applied to functional and phylogenetic annotation of newly sequenced genomes.
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            Cluster analysis and display of genome-wide expression patterns

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              The ENZYME database in 2000.

              A Bairoch (2000)
              The ENZYME database is a repository of information related to the nomenclature of enzymes. In recent years it has became an indispensable resource for the development of metabolic databases. The current version contains information on 3705 enzymes. It is available through the ExPASy WWW server (http://www.expasy.ch/enzyme/ ).
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Nature Genetics
                Nat Genet
                Springer Science and Business Media LLC
                1061-4036
                1546-1718
                May 2000
                May 2000
                : 25
                : 1
                : 25-29
                Article
                10.1038/75556
                3037419
                10802651
                34aa5ab9-db72-4e8d-b42d-84626f797984
                © 2000

                http://www.springer.com/tdm

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