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      Active Printed Materials for Complex Self-Evolving Deformations

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          Abstract

          We propose a new design of complex self-evolving structures that vary over time due to environmental interaction. In conventional 3D printing systems, materials are meant to be stable rather than active and fabricated models are designed and printed as static objects. Here, we introduce a novel approach for simulating and fabricating self-evolving structures that transform into a predetermined shape, changing property and function after fabrication. The new locally coordinated bending primitives combine into a single system, allowing for a global deformation which can stretch, fold and bend given environmental stimulus.

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          Omnidirectional printing of flexible, stretchable, and spanning silver microelectrodes.

          Flexible, stretchable, and spanning microelectrodes that carry signals from one circuit element to another are needed for many emerging forms of electronic and optoelectronic devices. We have patterned silver microelectrodes by omnidirectional printing of concentrated nanoparticle inks in both uniform and high-aspect ratio motifs with minimum widths of approximately 2 micrometers onto semiconductor, plastic, and glass substrates. The patterned microelectrodes can withstand repeated bending and stretching to large levels of strain with minimal degradation of their electrical properties. With this approach, wire bonding to fragile three-dimensional devices and spanning interconnects for solar cell and light-emitting diode arrays are demonstrated.
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            Programmable matter by folding.

            Programmable matter is a material whose properties can be programmed to achieve specific shapes or stiffnesses upon command. This concept requires constituent elements to interact and rearrange intelligently in order to meet the goal. This paper considers achieving programmable sheets that can form themselves in different shapes autonomously by folding. Past approaches to creating transforming machines have been limited by the small feature sizes, the large number of components, and the associated complexity of communication among the units. We seek to mitigate these difficulties through the unique concept of self-folding origami with universal crease patterns. This approach exploits a single sheet composed of interconnected triangular sections. The sheet is able to fold into a set of predetermined shapes using embedded actuation. To implement this self-folding origami concept, we have developed a scalable end-to-end planning and fabrication process. Given a set of desired objects, the system computes an optimized design for a single sheet and multiple controllers to achieve each of the desired objects. The material, called programmable matter by folding, is an example of a system capable of achieving multiple shapes for multiple functions.
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              Generalized multidimensional scaling: a framework for isometry-invariant partial surface matching.

              An efficient algorithm for isometry-invariant matching of surfaces is presented. The key idea is computing the minimum-distortion mapping between two surfaces. For this purpose, we introduce the generalized multidimensional scaling, a computationally efficient continuous optimization algorithm for finding the least distortion embedding of one surface into another. The generalized multidimensional scaling algorithm allows for both full and partial surface matching. As an example, it is applied to the problem of expression-invariant three-dimensional face recognition.
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                Author and article information

                Affiliations
                [1 ]Camera Culture Group, Media Lab, Massachusetts Institute of Technology , 75 Amherst St, Cambridge, MA
                [2 ]Bio/Nano/Programmable Matter Group, Autodesk Research, Autodesk Inc. Pier 9 , San Francisco, CA
                [3 ]Self-Assembly Laboratory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology , 265 Massachusetts Ave, Cambridge, MA
                [4 ]Stratasys, ltd. Rehovot Science Park , Rehovot, Israel
                [5 ]Singapore University of Technology and Design , 20 Dover Dr, Singapore
                [6 ]Bio/Nano/Programmable Matter Group, Autodesk Research, Autodesk Software Co.,Ltd. 399 Pu Dian Road, Shanghai, Pudong District, Shanghai PRC
                Author notes
                Journal
                Sci Rep
                Sci Rep
                Scientific Reports
                Nature Publishing Group
                2045-2322
                18 December 2014
                2014
                : 4
                srep07422
                10.1038/srep07422
                4270353
                25522053
                Copyright © 2014, Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 4.0 International License. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in the credit line; if the material is not included under the Creative Commons license, users will need to obtain permission from the license holder in order to reproduce the material. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/

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