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      Neural correlates of automatic emotion regulation and their association with suicidal ideation in adolescents during the first 90-days of residential care


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          Background: Suicide is the second leading cause of death for adolescents in the United States. However, relatively little is known about the forms of atypical neuro-cognitive function that are correlates of suicidal ideation (SI). One form of cognitive/affective function that, when dysfunctional, is associated with SI is emotion regulation. However, very little work has investigated the neural correlates of emotion dysregulation in adolescents with SI. Methods: Participants ( N = 111 aged 12-18, 32 females, 31 [27.9%] reporting SI) were recruited shortly after their arrival at a residential care facility where they had been referred for behavioral and mental health problems. Daily reports of SI were collected during the participants’ first 90-days in residential care. Participants were presented with a task-fMRI measure of emotion regulation – the Affective Number Stroop task shortly after recruitment. Participants were divided into two groups matched for age, sex and IQ based on whether they demonstrated SI. Results: Participants who demonstrated SI showed increased recruitment of regions including dorsomedial prefrontal cortex/supplemental motor area and parietal cortex during task (congruent and incongruent) relative to view trials in the context of emotional relative to neutral distracters. Conclusions: Participants with SI showed increased recruitment of regions implicated in executive control during the performance of a task indexing automatic emotion regulation. Such data might suggest a relative inefficiency in the recruitment of these regions in individuals with SI.

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          Neural mechanisms of selective visual attention.

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            Toward the future of psychiatric diagnosis: the seven pillars of RDoC

            Background Current diagnostic systems for mental disorders rely upon presenting signs and symptoms, with the result that current definitions do not adequately reflect relevant neurobiological and behavioral systems - impeding not only research on etiology and pathophysiology but also the development of new treatments. Discussion The National Institute of Mental Health began the Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) project in 2009 to develop a research classification system for mental disorders based upon dimensions of neurobiology and observable behavior. RDoC supports research to explicate fundamental biobehavioral dimensions that cut across current heterogeneous disorder categories. We summarize the rationale, status and long-term goals of RDoC, outline challenges in developing a research classification system (such as construct validity and a suitable process for updating the framework) and discuss seven distinct differences in conception and emphasis from current psychiatric nosologies. Summary Future diagnostic systems cannot reflect ongoing advances in genetics, neuroscience and cognitive science until a literature organized around these disciplines is available to inform the revision efforts. The goal of the RDoC project is to provide a framework for research to transform the approach to the nosology of mental disorders.
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              Cognitive reappraisal of emotion: a meta-analysis of human neuroimaging studies.

              In recent years, an explosion of neuroimaging studies has examined cognitive reappraisal, an emotion regulation strategy that involves changing the way one thinks about a stimulus in order to change its affective impact. Existing models broadly agree that reappraisal recruits frontal and parietal control regions to modulate emotional responding in the amygdala, but they offer competing visions of how this is accomplished. One view holds that control regions engage ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC), an area associated with fear extinction, that in turn modulates amygdala responses. An alternative view is that control regions modulate semantic representations in lateral temporal cortex that indirectly influence emotion-related responses in the amygdala. Furthermore, while previous work has emphasized the amygdala, whether reappraisal influences other regions implicated in emotional responding remains unknown. To resolve these questions, we performed a meta-analysis of 48 neuroimaging studies of reappraisal, most involving downregulation of negative affect. Reappraisal consistently 1) activated cognitive control regions and lateral temporal cortex, but not vmPFC, and 2) modulated the bilateral amygdala, but no other brain regions. This suggests that reappraisal involves the use of cognitive control to modulate semantic representations of an emotional stimulus, and these altered representations in turn attenuate activity in the amygdala. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

                Author and article information

                Transl Psychiatry
                Transl Psychiatry
                Translational Psychiatry
                Nature Publishing Group UK (London )
                23 January 2024
                23 January 2024
                : 14
                : 54
                [1 ]GRID grid.414583.f, ISNI 0000 0000 8953 4586, Center for Neurobehavioral Research, , Boys Town National Research Hospital, ; Boys Town, NE USA
                [2 ]GRID grid.257413.6, ISNI 0000 0001 2287 3919, Department of Psychiatry, , Indiana University School of Medicine, ; Indianapolis, IN USA
                [3 ]Department of Cancer Systems Imaging, MD Anderson Center, South Campus Research Bldg, Houston, TX USA
                [4 ]Multimodal Clinical Neuroimaging Laboratory, Institute for Human Neuroscience, ( https://ror.org/03ebg0v16) Boys Town, NE USA
                [5 ]Department of Psychology and Human Development, Peabody College, Vanderbilt University, ( https://ror.org/02vm5rt34) Nashville, TN USA
                [6 ]USC Stevens Neuroimaging and Informatics Institute, Keck School of Medicine of USC, University of Southern California, ( https://ror.org/03taz7m60) Los Angeles, CA USA
                [7 ]Stritch School of Medicine, Loyola University Medical Center, ( https://ror.org/05xcyt367) Maywood, IL USA
                [8 ]University of North Dakota, ( https://ror.org/04a5szx83) Grand Forks, ND USA
                [9 ]GRID grid.24434.35, ISNI 0000 0004 1937 0060, University of Nebraska Department of Psychology, ; Lincoln, NE USA
                [10 ]GRID grid.414583.f, ISNI 0000 0000 8953 4586, Child and Family Translational Research, , Boys Town National Research Hospital, ; Boys Town, NE USA
                [11 ]GRID grid.425848.7, ISNI 0000 0004 0639 1831, Child and Adolescent Mental Health Centre, Mental Health Services, , Capital Region of Denmark, ; Copenhagen, Denmark
                Author information
                © The Author(s) 2024

                Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

                : 7 September 2021
                : 9 November 2023
                : 15 December 2023
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                © Springer Nature Limited 2024

                Clinical Psychology & Psychiatry
                predictive markers,human behaviour
                Clinical Psychology & Psychiatry
                predictive markers, human behaviour


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