Objective To understand the status quo and influencing factors of overweight and obesity in preschool children, and to provide scientific theoretical reference for the prevention and control of overweight and obesity in preschool children in Urumqi.
Methods Stratified cluster sampling method was adopted to select 1 897 preschool children from 10 kindergartens in Urumqi from October to December in 2021 to understand the status quo of overweight and obesity of preschool children by measuring their height and weight. The influencing factors were collected by questionnaire survey, including Chinese preschoolers’eating behavior questionnaire, Chinese preschooler’s caregivers feeding behavior scale, 3–6-year-old children’s home nurture environment scale, and characteristics and influencing factors of physical activity among preschool children.
Results The prevalence of overweight and obesity in preschool children was 31.21% (592), including 19.50% (370) overweight and 11.70% (222) obesity. Childhood overweight and obesity detection rates varied significantly by age, sex, child dietary habits, father BMI, maternal BMI, and maternal pre-pregnancy BMI (χ 2 = 19.63, 28.75, 9.45, 18.21, 18.45, 19.36, P<0.05). Multivariate Logistic regression analysis showed that gender, children’s eating habits, paternal BMI, pregnancy BMI, satiety responsiveness, external eating, initiative eating, weight concerns, behavior restricted feeding, physical activity and family physical activity environment were the influencing factors of overweight and obesity in preschool children ( OR = 0.52, 1.43, 1.51, 1.44, 0.69, 0.74, 1.35, 1.71, 0.81, 0.96, 1.10, P<0.05).
Conclusion Over weight and obesity in preschool children are popular in Urumqi. Education, diet control and scientific exercise should be strengthened to prevent childhood overweight and obesity.
【摘要】 目的 了解学龄前儿童超重肥胖现状及其影响因素, 为预防和控制乌鲁木齐市学龄前儿童超重肥胖的发生提供 参考依据。 方法 采用分层整群抽样方法, 于2021年10—12月抽取乌鲁木齐市10所幼儿园1 897名学龄前儿童, 通过对 身髙、体重的测量了解学龄前儿童超重肥胖现状, 应用一般资料调査问卷、学龄前儿童饮食行为量表、学龄前儿童照护人喂 养行为量表、3~6岁儿童家庭养育环境量表、学龄前儿童体力活动问卷等分析其相关因素。 结果 学龄前儿童超重肥胖检 出率为31.21%(592名), 其中超重率为19.50%(370名), 肥胖率为11.70%(222名)。儿童超重肥胖检出率在不同年龄、性别、儿童饮食习惯(喜食肉类)、父亲体质量指数、母亲体质量指数、母亲孕前体质量指数间差异均有统计学意义(χ 2值分 别为19.63, 28.75, 9.45, 18.21, 18.45, 19.36, P值均<0.05)。多因素Logistic回归分析显示, 性别、儿童饮食习惯、父亲体质量 指数、母亲孕前体质量指数、过饱响应、外因性进食、主动进食能力、体重担忧、饮食行为限制、体力活动、家庭体力活动环境 是学龄前儿童超重肥胖的相关因素( OR值分别为0.52, 1.43, 1.51, 1.44, 0.69, 0.74, 1.35, 1.71, 0.81, 0.96, 1.10, P值均<0.05)。 结论 乌鲁木齐市学龄前儿童超重肥胖问题严峻, 应加强教育、控制饮食、科学锻炼, 以防止儿童超重肥胖的发生。