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      Caffeic acid phenethyl ester suppressed growth and metastasis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells by inactivating the NF-κB pathway

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          Abstract

          Purpose: Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) is the main polyphenol extracted from honeybee propolis, which inhibits the growth of several kinds of tumor. This study aimed to assess the inhibitory effect of CAPE in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), evaluate the synergistic action of CAPE in radiotherapy sensitivity of NPC cell lines and further elucidate the possible molecular mechanism involved.

          Materials and methods: CCK-8 assay was used to analyze cell proliferation ability. Colony formation assay was used to evaluate the clonogenic ability and radio-sensitiveness of NPC cells by CAPE treatment. Wound-healing and transwell assay were used to assess the motility of cells. The expression of key molecules of the epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) was determined by western blot analysis and changes in radiation sensitivity were measured by colony-formation assay. cDNA microarray analysis was used to determine differentially expressed genes with and without CAPE treatment, with Gene Ontology enrichment of gene function and KEGG pathways determined. Cell cycle and apoptosis were detected by flow cytometry and western blot analysis.

          Results: CAPE suppressed the viability of NPC cell lines time- and dose-dependently. It induced apoptosis in NPC cells along with decreased expression of Bcl-XL and increased cleavage of PARP and expression of Bax. G1 phase arrest was induced by CAPE with ower expression of CDK4, CDK6, Rb and p-Rb. The migratory and invasive ability of NPC cells was decreased by the EMT pathway. The irradiation sensitivity of NPC cells was enhanced with CAPE treatment. CAPE specifically inhibited nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) signaling pathway by suppressing p65 subunit translocation from cytoplasm to nucleus. CAPE treatment was synergistic with chemotherapy and radiotherapy.

          Conclusion: CAPE may inhibit the proliferation and metastasis of NPC cells but enhance radiosensitivity in NPC therapy by inhibiting the NF-κB pathway. CAPE could be a potential therapeutic compound for NPC therapy.

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          Most cited references 30

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          Is NF-kappaB a good target for cancer therapy? Hopes and pitfalls.

          Nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) transcription factors have a key role in many physiological processes such as innate and adaptive immune responses, cell proliferation, cell death, and inflammation. It has become clear that aberrant regulation of NF-kappaB and the signalling pathways that control its activity are involved in cancer development and progression, as well as in resistance to chemotherapy and radiotherapy. This article discusses recent evidence from cancer genetics and cancer genome studies that support the involvement of NF-kappaB in human cancer, particularly in multiple myeloma. The therapeutic potential and benefit of targeting NF-kappaB in cancer, and the possible complications and pitfalls of such an approach, are explored.
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            Caffeic acid phenethyl ester is a potent and specific inhibitor of activation of nuclear transcription factor NF-kappa B.

            Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE), an active component of propolis from honeybee hives, is known to have antimitogenic, anticarcinogenic, antiinflammatory, and immunomodulatory properties. The molecular basis for these diverse properties is not known. Since the role of the nuclear factor NF-kappa B in these responses has been documented, we examined the effect of CAPE on this transcription factor. Our results show that the activation of NF-kappa B by tumor necrosis factor (TNF) is completely blocked by CAPE in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Besides TNF, CAPE also inhibited NF-kappa B activation induced by other inflammatory agents including phorbol ester, ceramide, hydrogen peroxide, and okadaic acid. Since the reducing agents reversed the inhibitory effect of CAPE, it suggests the role of critical sulfhydryl groups in NF-kappa B activation. CAPE prevented the translocation of the p65 subunit of NF-kappa B to the nucleus and had no significant effect on TNF-induced I kappa B alpha degradation, but did delay I kappa B alpha resynthesis. The effect of CAPE on inhibition of NF-kappa B binding to the DNA was specific, in as much as binding of other transcription factors including AP-1, Oct-1, and TFIID to their DNA were not affected. When various synthetic structural analogues of CAPE were examined, it was found that a bicyclic, rotationally constrained, 5,6-dihydroxy form was superactive, whereas 6,7-dihydroxy variant was least active. Thus, overall our results demonstrate that CAPE is a potent and a specific inhibitor of NF-kappa B activation and this may provide the molecular basis for its multiple immunomodulatory and antiinflammatory activities.
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              Transcription factor NF-kappaB: a sensor for smoke and stress signals.

              Nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappaB) is a transcription factor that resides in the cytoplasm of every cell and translocates to the nucleus when activated. Its activation is induced by a wide variety of agents including stress, cigarette smoke, viruses, bacteria, inflammatory stimuli, cytokines, free radicals, carcinogens, tumor promoters, and endotoxins. On activation, NF-kappaB regulates the expression of almost 400 different genes, which include enzymes (e.g., COX-2, 5-LOX, and iNOS), cytokines (such as TNF, IL-1, IL-6, IL-8, and chemokines), adhesion molecules, cell cycle regulatory molecules, viral proteins, and angiogenic factors. The constitutive activation of NF-kappaB has been linked with a wide variety of human diseases, including asthma, atherosclerosis, AIDS, rheumatoid arthritis, diabetes, osteoporosis, Alzheimer's disease, and cancer. Several agents are known to suppress NF-kappaB activation, including Th2 cytokines (IL-4, IL-13, and IL-10), interferons, endocrine hormones (LH, HCG, MSH, and GH), phytochemicals, corticosteroids, and immunosuppressive agents. Because of the strong link of NF-kappaB with different stress signals, it has been called a "smoke-sensor" of the body.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                DDDT
                dddt
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Dove
                1177-8881
                26 April 2019
                2019
                : 13
                : 1335-1345
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Key laboratory of High-Incidence-Tumor Prevention & Treatment, Ministry of Education, Guangxi Medical University , Nanning, People’s Republic of China
                [2 ]Department of Otolaryngology Head & Neck Surgery, First Affiliated Hospital of Guangxi Medical University , Nanning, People’s Republic of China
                [3 ]Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Drug Screening, China Pharmaceutical University , Nanjing, People’s Republic of China
                [4 ]Life Science Institute, Guangxi Medical University , Nanning, People’s Republic of China
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Guangwu HuangDepartment of Otolaryngology-Head & Neck Surgery, First Affiliated Hospital of Guangxi Medical University , 6# Shuangyong Road, Nanning530021, People’s Republic of ChinaTel +861 360 786 1288Email hgw1288@ 123456126.com
                Xiaoying ZhouLife Science Institute, Guangxi Medical University , 22# Shuangyong Road, Nanning530021, People’s Republic of ChinaTel +861 373 709 4484Email zhouxiaoying1982@ 123456foxmail.com
                Article
                199182
                10.2147/DDDT.S199182
                6499142
                © 2019 Liang et al.

                This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms ( https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php).

                Page count
                Figures: 6, References: 34, Pages: 11
                Categories
                Original Research

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