Within the past decade, human infections with the highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 have resulted in approximately 60% mortality and increased the need for vaccines and therapeutics. Understanding the molecular events associated with pathology can aid this effort; therefore, this study was conducted to assess microRNA (miRNA) expression in mouse lungs infected with H5N1 A/Vietnam/1203/04. Intranasal administration of 1500 median tissue culture infectious dose of H5N1 promoted differences in the number and expression pattern of miRNA from lung tissue collected at 2, 4, 6, 24, and 96 h post-exposure that mapped to common biological functions. Informatics analysis identified miRNA-specific predicted genes known to be therapeutic drug targets in which Furin was common to all time periods. This study provides insight into the differential miRNA expression with respect to the host-pathogen relationship and identification of potential therapeutic drug targets.