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      A Nutritional Profile of the Trap-Nesting Wasp Trypoxylon lactitarse (Hymenoptera: Crabronidae): Comparison of Sexes and Overwintering and Non-Overwintering Generations

      research-article
      1 , * , 2
      Insects
      MDPI
      Trypoxylon, nutrition, wasp, micronutrient, macronutrient, bivoltine

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          Abstract

          The wasp Trypoxylon lactitarse Saussure is a bivoltine trap-nesting species that possesses a non-overwintering generation (G1) and a generation that overwinters as a prepupa (G2). Thus, the nutritional needs of the G1 individuals were predicted to be different than the G2 because the latter generation needs to store energy prior to diapause. Trap-nesting Trypoxylon are also of interest because, unlike most Hymenoptera, the males guard the nest while females forage. Thus, males may lose nutrients as they stay and guard the nest. In this study, a nutritional profile was created for T. lactitarse to compare the macronutrient (protein, carbohydrates, and lipids) and micronutrient (Ca, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, and Zn) levels of the different life stages of the wasp and compare individuals of the G1 and G2 generations. There were distinct changes in the nutrient levels relative to the original food source as individuals metamorphosed into larvae, pupae, and adults. G1 larvae had higher levels of carbohydrates than G2 larvae. G2 larvae had higher levels of lipids and K than G1 larvae, indicating possible differences in energy storage. In adults, there was an increase in levels of carbohydrates and Mn. Parental males, which stay and guard the nest, were found to have higher levels of carbohydrates at the end of the nesting period than females and emerging adults. One possible implication is that females may feed males during the nesting period, as the females are the only individuals to forage.

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          Most cited references48

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          Genesis: cluster analysis of microarray data.

          A versatile, platform independent and easy to use Java suite for large-scale gene expression analysis was developed. Genesis integrates various tools for microarray data analysis such as filters, normalization and visualization tools, distance measures as well as common clustering algorithms including hierarchical clustering, self-organizing maps, k-means, principal component analysis, and support vector machines. The results of the clustering are transparent across all implemented methods and enable the analysis of the outcome of different algorithms and parameters. Additionally, mapping of gene expression data onto chromosomal sequences was implemented to enhance promoter analysis and investigation of transcriptional control mechanisms.
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            Developmental and Physiological Determinants of Caste in Social Hymenoptera: Evolutionary Implications

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              Reproductive ground plan may mediate colony-level selection effects on individual foraging behavior in honey bees.

              The colony-level phenotype of an insect society emerges from interactions between large numbers of individuals that may differ considerably in their morphology, physiology, and behavior. The proximate and ultimate mechanisms that allow this complex integrated system to form are not fully known, and understanding the evolution of social life strategies is a major topic in systems biology. In solitary insects, behavior, sensory tuning, and reproductive physiology are linked. These associations are controlled in part by pleiotropic networks that organize the sequential expression of phases in the reproductive cycle. Here we explore whether similar associations give rise to different behavioral phenotypes in a eusocial worker caste. We document that the pleiotropic genetic network that controls foraging behavior in functionally sterile honey bee workers (Apis mellifera) has a reproductive component. Associations between behavior, physiology, and sensory tuning in workers with different foraging strategies indicate that the underlying genetic architectures were designed to control a reproductive cycle. Genetic circuits that make up the regulatory "ground plan" of a reproductive strategy may provide powerful building blocks for social life. We suggest that exploitation of this ground plan plays a fundamental role in the evolution of social insect societies.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: Academic Editor
                Journal
                Insects
                Insects
                insects
                Insects
                MDPI
                2075-4450
                03 January 2017
                March 2017
                : 8
                : 1
                : 3
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Biology, Southeast Missouri State University, Cape Girardeau, MO 63701, USA
                [2 ]Department of Chemistry, Southeast Missouri State University, Cape Girardeau, MO 63701, USA
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: tjudd@ 123456semo.edu ; Tel.: +1-573-651-2365
                Article
                insects-08-00003
                10.3390/insects8010003
                5371931
                28054943
                3670b39c-b786-49a1-954d-bc22c4c8804f
                © 2017 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

                History
                : 30 October 2016
                : 22 December 2016
                Categories
                Article

                trypoxylon,nutrition,wasp,micronutrient,macronutrient,bivoltine
                trypoxylon, nutrition, wasp, micronutrient, macronutrient, bivoltine

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