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      Effects of dietary fiber sources during late gestation and lactation on sow performance, milk quality, and intestinal health in piglets1

      1 , 1 , 1 , 1 , 1
      Journal of Animal Science
      Oxford University Press (OUP)

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          Abstract

          This study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary supplementation with 2 sources of fiber, sugar beet pulp (SBP), and wheat bran (WB), on sow performance, milk quality, and intestinal health in piglets. Forty-five multiparous sows at day 85 of gestation were allocated to the following 3 treatments: 1) a corn-soybean meal basal diet (CON); 2) the CON diet supplemented with 20% SBP in gestation and 10% SBP in lactation (SBP); and 3) the CON diet supplemented with 30% WB in gestation and 15% WB in lactation (WB). The SBP diets increased (P < 0.05) sow ADFI during lactation, litter and piglet weaning weight, piglet ADG, immunoglobulin A (IgA), and interleukin-10 (IL-10) levels in the colostrum and IgA levels in the milk, while the WB diets only increased (P < 0.05) IL-10 levels in the milk when compared with the CON diets. Piglets from SBP-fed sows had greater (P < 0.05) serum growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor-1 levels than those from WB-fed or CON-fed sows, whereas piglets from WB-fed sows had greater (P < 0.05) serum GH levels than those from CON-fed sows. Serum diamine oxidase activity, endotoxin, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) levels were reduced (P < 0.05) in piglets from SBP-fed or WB-fed sows. Piglets from SBP-fed sows also had greater (P < 0.05) serum IL-10 levels than those from CON-fed sows. The ileal mRNA expression of TNF-α was reduced (P < 0.05) in piglets from SBP-fed or WB-fed sows. Piglets from SBP-fed sows had lower (P < 0.05) IL-6 expression, and greater (P < 0.05) IL-10 expression and secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA) levels in the ileum than those from WB- or CON-fed sows. Piglets from WB-fed sows had greater (P < 0.05) IL-10 expression and SIgA levels compared with those from CON-fed sows. The ileal mRNA expression of occludin in the ileum was greater (P < 0.05) in piglets from SBP-fed sows than those from CON-fed sows. The ileal mRNA expression of ZO-1 was greater (P < 0.05) in piglets from WB-fed sows than those from CON-fed sows, but lower (P < 0.05) than those from SBP-fed sows. Piglets from SBP-fed sows had greater (P < 0.05) abundance of Christensenellaceae and butyrate levels in the colon, while piglets from WB-fed sows had greater (P < 0.05) abundance of Lactobacillaceae. Collectively, maternal SBP supplementation was more effective than WB in improving milk quality, enhancing growth performance and intestinal barrier function, and ameliorating intestinal inflammation in piglets.

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          Most cited references57

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          Methods for dietary fiber, neutral detergent fiber, and nonstarch polysaccharides in relation to animal nutrition.

          There is a need to standardize the NDF procedure. Procedures have varied because of the use of different amylases in attempts to remove starch interference. The original Bacillus subtilis enzyme Type IIIA (XIA) no longer is available and has been replaced by a less effective enzyme. For fiber work, a new enzyme has received AOAC approval and is rapidly displacing other amylases in analytical work. This enzyme is available from Sigma (Number A3306; Sigma Chemical Co., St. Louis, MO). The original publications for NDF and ADF (43, 53) and the Agricultural Handbook 379 (14) are obsolete and of historical interest only. Up to date procedures should be followed. Triethylene glycol has replaced 2-ethoxyethanol because of reported toxicity. Considerable development in regard to fiber methods has occurred over the past 5 yr because of a redefinition of dietary fiber for man and monogastric animals that includes lignin and all polysaccharides resistant to mammalian digestive enzymes. In addition to NDF, new improved methods for total dietary fiber and nonstarch polysaccharides including pectin and beta-glucans now are available. The latter are also of interest in rumen fermentation. Unlike starch, their fermentations are like that of cellulose but faster and yield no lactic acid. Physical and biological properties of carbohydrate fractions are more important than their intrinsic composition.
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            A Dietary Fiber-Deprived Gut Microbiota Degrades the Colonic Mucus Barrier and Enhances Pathogen Susceptibility.

            Despite the accepted health benefits of consuming dietary fiber, little is known about the mechanisms by which fiber deprivation impacts the gut microbiota and alters disease risk. Using a gnotobiotic mouse model, in which animals were colonized with a synthetic human gut microbiota composed of fully sequenced commensal bacteria, we elucidated the functional interactions between dietary fiber, the gut microbiota, and the colonic mucus barrier, which serves as a primary defense against enteric pathogens. We show that during chronic or intermittent dietary fiber deficiency, the gut microbiota resorts to host-secreted mucus glycoproteins as a nutrient source, leading to erosion of the colonic mucus barrier. Dietary fiber deprivation, together with a fiber-deprived, mucus-eroding microbiota, promotes greater epithelial access and lethal colitis by the mucosal pathogen, Citrobacter rodentium. Our work reveals intricate pathways linking diet, the gut microbiome, and intestinal barrier dysfunction, which could be exploited to improve health using dietary therapeutics.
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              Intestinal mucosal barrier function in health and disease.

              Mucosal surfaces are lined by epithelial cells. These cells establish a barrier between sometimes hostile external environments and the internal milieu. However, mucosae are also responsible for nutrient absorption and waste secretion, which require a selectively permeable barrier. These functions place the mucosal epithelium at the centre of interactions between the mucosal immune system and luminal contents, including dietary antigens and microbial products. Recent advances have uncovered mechanisms by which the intestinal mucosal barrier is regulated in response to physiological and immunological stimuli. Here I discuss these discoveries along with evidence that this regulation shapes mucosal immune responses in the gut and, when dysfunctional, may contribute to disease.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Journal of Animal Science
                Oxford University Press (OUP)
                0021-8812
                1525-3163
                December 2019
                December 17 2019
                November 13 2019
                December 2019
                December 17 2019
                November 13 2019
                : 97
                : 12
                : 4922-4933
                Affiliations
                [1 ]State Key Laboratory of Animal Nutrition, College of Animal Science and Technology, China Agricultural University, Beijing, China
                Article
                10.1093/jas/skz278
                7104867
                31722389
                392e1774-d8b4-45f7-9098-68de5e6e7857
                © 2019

                https://academic.oup.com/journals/pages/open_access/funder_policies/chorus/standard_publication_model

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