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      Cuidados de larga duración en Costa Rica: enseñanzas para América Latina desde la evidencia internacional Translated title: Long-term care in Costa Rica: Lessons for Latin America based on international evidence Translated title: Cuidados de longa duração na Costa Rica: aprendizados para a América Latina partindo de evidências internacionais

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          RESUMEN

          La creciente prevalencia de dependencia funcional derivada del envejecimiento acelerado y la transformación epidemiológica hace inevitable la implementación de nuevos sistemas de cuidados de larga duración (CLD) en las Américas. En marzo del 2021, Costa Rica se convirtió en el único país de ingresos medios en la Región que ha iniciado la aplicación de un sistema nacional de este tipo. En este artículo se compara el diseño del nuevo sistema de cuidados de larga duración de Costa Rica, con los sistemas de Australia, Dinamarca, España, Estados Unidos de América, Japón y Uruguay, y se identifican enseñanzas útiles para el desarrollo de otros sistemas de CLD en la Región. Se analizan cuatro aspectos: el marco legal, el acceso y la cobertura, los tipos de servicios, y los costos y la financiación. Para ello se realizó una revisión de la bibliografía científica y de informes nacionales e internacionales entre el 1 de enero del año 2000 y el primer día de abril del año 2021. El incipiente modelo sigue las principales tendencias de la experiencia internacional. Es progresivamente universal, prioriza la atención domiciliaria, incluye herramientas tecnológicas, crea parámetros de calidad para los servicios, incorpora transferencias monetarias para familiares que se desempeñan como cuidadores, inicia servicios de respiro y desarrolla formación para personas cuidadoras. No obstante, la evidencia internacional muestra que los modelos con menor financiamiento tienen baja cobertura y poca diversidad en servicios. La escasa generosidad fiscal, la ausencia de nuevas fuentes de recursos económicos y la debilidad jurídica arriesgan la ampliación, desarrollo y sostenibilidad del nuevo modelo en las Américas.

          ABSTRACT

          The growing prevalence of functional dependency as a result of accelerated aging and epidemiological transformation has created a pressing need to implement new systems to address the problem of long-term care (LTC) in the Region of the Americas. In March 2021, Costa Rica became the only middle-income country in the Region that has taken steps to introduce a national LTC system. The present article compares the design of this new LTC system with existing systems in Australia, Denmark, Japan, Spain, the United States of America, and Uruguay, and identifies useful lessons for the development of LTC systems in other countries of the Region. Four aspects are analyzed: the legal framework, access and coverage, types of services, and costs and financing. A search of the scientific literature and national and international reports was conducted between 1 January 2000 and 1 April 2021. The results showed that the incipient Costa Rican model follows the main trends that are seen internationally. It is progressively universal, prioritizes home care, incorporates technology tools, creates parameters for measuring the quality of services, provides monetary transfers for family members who serve as caregivers, includes respite services, and offers training for caregivers. At the same time, however, the international evidence shows that models with poor levels of funding have low coverage and offer little diversity in terms of the services provided. Insufficient funding, absence of new economic resources, and weak legal foundations are jeopardizing the expansion, development, and sustainability of the new model in the Americas.

          RESUMO

          A crescente prevalência de dependência funcional derivada do envelhecimento acelerado e da transformação epidemiológica torna inevitável a implementação de novos sistemas de cuidados de longa duração (CLD) na Região das Américas. Em março de 2021, a Costa Rica se transformou no único país de renda média na Região que iniciou a aplicação de um sistema nacional desse tipo. Neste artigo, compara-se o desenho do novo sistema de cuidados de longa duração da Costa Rica com os sistemas da Austrália, Dinamarca, Espanha, Estados Unidos da América, Japão e Uruguai, e se identificam aprendizados úteis para o desenvolvimento de outros sistemas de CLD na Região. São analisados quatro aspectos: o marco legal, o acesso e a cobertura, os tipos de serviço, os custos e o financiamento. Para isso, foi realizada uma revisão da bibliografia científica e de relatórios nacionais e internacionais entre 1º de janeiro de 2000 e 1º de abril de 2021. O modelo inicial segue as principais tendências da experiência internacional. É progressivamente universal, prioriza a atenção domiciliar, inclui ferramentas tecnológicas, cria parâmetros de qualidade para os serviços, incorpora transferências monetárias para familiares que atuam como cuidadores, inicia serviços de cuidados intermitentes e desenvolve formação para cuidadores. No entanto, a evidência internacional mostra que os modelos com menor financiamento têm baixa cobertura e pouca diversidade de serviços. A escassa generosidade fiscal, a ausência de novas fontes de recursos econômicos e a vulnerabilidade jurídica colocam em risco a ampliação, o desenvolvimento e a sustentabilidade do novo modelo nas Américas.

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          Early Impacts of the Affordable Care Act on Health Insurance Coverage in Medicaid Expansion and Non-Expansion States

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            Financing Long-term Care: Lessons From Japan

            Long-term care (LTC) must be carefully delineated when expenditures are compared across countries because how LTC services are defined and delivered differ in each country. LTC’s objectives are to compensate for functional decline and mitigate the care burden of the family. Governments have tended to focus on the poor but Germany opted to make LTC universally available in 1995/1996. The applicant’s level of dependence is assessed by the medical team of the social insurance plan. Japan basically followed this model but, unlike Germany where those eligible may opt for cash benefits, they are limited to services. Benefits are set more generously in Japan because, prior to its implementation in 2000, health insurance had covered long-stays in hospitals and there had been major expansions of social services. These service levels had to be maintained and be made universally available for all those meeting the eligibility criteria. As a result, efforts to contain costs after the implementation of the LTC Insurance have had only marginal effects. This indicates it would be more efficient and equitable to introduce public LTC Insurance at an early stage before benefits have expanded as a result of ad hoc policy decisions.
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              The Long-Term Care Insurance System in Japan: Past, Present, and Future

              The Japanese population is rapidly aging. The proportion of people aged ≥65 was 27.3% in 2016, the highest in the world. Japan achieved universal health coverage for medical care in 1961 with the introduction of the National Health Insurance (NHI) system. However, increasing expenditure on inpatient care for old people became a significant issue in society. At that time, tax-supported in-home services were mainly for old people with low incomes and little care given by family. To tackle these problems, universal health coverage for long-term care was introduced in 2000 under the Long-Term Care Insurance (LTCI) system. People aged ≥65 who satisfied the eligibility criteria and those aged 40–64 with age-related diseases are entitled to receive long-term care services at home or in facilities, irrespective of income level and availability of family caregiving. The practical benefits in kind under the LTCI system for family caregivers have been demonstrated. However, because of a recent increase in long-term care costs, especially facility-based costs, it may be necessary to give more support to family (informal) caregivers who participate in home-based long-term care. Health services research using nationwide claims data would help sustain the LTCI system through evidence-based policymaking. Recent studies have explored how to prevent deterioration of care need levels among residents of long-term care welfare facilities and how to promote a shift from facility-based to home-based long-term care services. By 2025, as the baby boomer generation is projected to reach the age of 75, the Japanese government is planning to establish a community-based integrated care system. Harmonization between long-term care and medical care, involving the informal sector and nonprofit organizations, would mitigate the increasing cost of both the NHI and LTCI systems. To achieve this, more research is warranted to understand how long-term care, medical care, and informal care can be effectively integrated in the community.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Rev Panam Salud Publica
                Rev Panam Salud Publica
                rpsp
                Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública
                Organización Panamericana de la Salud
                1020-4989
                1680-5348
                19 November 2021
                2021
                : 45
                : e146
                Affiliations
                [1 ] normalizedUniversidad Pablo de Olavide Sevilla España originalUniversidad Pablo de Olavide, Sevilla, España.
                Author notes
                Alexander Chaverri-Carvajal, achacar@ 123456alu.upo.es
                Article
                RPSP.2021.146
                10.26633/RPSP.2021.146
                8603994
                34815737
                39525837-756e-4dd3-a399-e25cec5742d7

                Este es un artículo de acceso abierto distribuido bajo los términos de la licencia Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 IGO, que permite su uso, distribución y reproducción en cualquier medio, siempre que el trabajo original se cite de la manera adecuada. No se permiten modificaciones a los artículos ni su uso comercial. Al reproducir un artículo no debe haber ningún indicio de que la OPS o el artículo avalan a una organización o un producto específico. El uso del logo de la OPS no está permitido. Esta leyenda debe conservarse, junto con la URL original del artículo. Crédito del logo y texto open access: PLoS, bajo licencia Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported.

                History
                : 25 June 2021
                : 17 September 2021
                Page count
                Figures: 1, Tables: 4, Equations: 0, References: 35
                Categories
                Informe Especial

                cuidados a largo plazo,dependencia funcional,protección social,américa latina,américas,long-term care,functional status,public policy,america,latin america,assistência de longa duração,estado funcional,política pública

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