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      Comparison of Transthoracic and Intraoperative Transesophageal Color Flow Doppler Assessment of Mitral and Aortic Regurgitation

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          Abstract

          Background: We examined the agreement between transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) and intraoperative prepump transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) in the assessment of left-sided regurgitant lesions and echocardiographic variables associated with grading discrepancies. Methods: The TTE and prepump TEE studies of 54 patients undergoing aortic-valve replacement for aortic stenosis were reviewed. Agreement and correlation in assessment of aortic (AR) and mitral regurgitation (MR) severity were evaluated. Results: There was no significant difference between mean TTE and prepump TEE grading of MR (0.23 ± 0.19 vs. 0.21 ± 0.15 jet area/area of the left atrium, p = 0.49), but the correlation between the two methods was weak (r = 0.40, p = 0.003), with an exact agreement of 54%. Prepump TEE tended to grade AR as more severe (mean grade 1.43 ± 0.94 vs. 1.24 ± 0.75, p = 0.058). The correlation between the two methods in AR assessment was fair (r = 0.70, p = 0.0001) with an agreement of 59%. For MR and AR grading, no significant correlations between valvular regurgitation severity and blood pressure differences between preoperative TTE and prepump TEE were found. In 17% of cases, discrepancies in identifying severe mitral or aortic valve regurgitation could have affected patient management. Conclusions: There is modest agreement in MR and AR assessment between TTE and prepump TEE. Cardiologists, cardiac surgeons, and anesthesiologists must be aware of differences between these methods when using prepump TEE to guide intraoperative decisions.

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          Age-related changes in aortic and mitral valve thickness: implications for two-dimensional echocardiography based on an autopsy study of 200 normal human hearts.

          The thicknesses at 3 sites of each aortic cusp (nodule, closing edge and middle part) and 2 sites of both mitral leaflets (closing edge and clear zone) were measured in 200 autopsy specimens of normal hearts, evenly distributed by age and sex. There were no significant correlations between valvular thickness and height, weight, heart weight or body surface area. The mean thickness at each site was not different between men and women but increased significantly with age (p less than 0.001). For 3 age groups (less than 20, 20 to 59 and greater than or equal to 60 years), the corresponding mean thicknesses (mm) of the aortic nodule were 0.67, 0.87 and 1.42; those for the anterior mitral leaflet were 1.30, 1.60 and 3.20; and those for the posterior mitral leaflet were 0.91, 1.13 and 2.04. For the aortic valve, the nodule was nearly twice as thick as the closing edge (p less than 0.001), and the closing edge was at least 25% thicker than the middle part (p less than 0.001). Furthermore, the posterior aortic cusp was thicker than the right and left cusps (p less than 0.05). For both mitral leaflets, the closing edge was thicker than the clear zone (p less than 0.05). Moreover, along the closing edges, the anterior leaflet was thicker than the posterior leaflet (p less than 0.05). These observations may be useful in echocardiographic evaluations of aortic and mitral valve sclerosis in elderly patients.
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            Comparison of transthoracic and transesophageal echocardiography for assessment of left-sided valvular regurgitation

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              Author and article information

              Journal
              CRD
              Cardiology
              10.1159/issn.0008-6312
              Cardiology
              S. Karger AG
              0008-6312
              1421-9751
              2003
              June 2003
              27 June 2003
              : 99
              : 3
              : 145-152
              Affiliations
              Department of Medicine (Division of Cardiology), Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, Calif., USA
              Article
              70671 Cardiology 2003;99:145–152
              10.1159/000070671
              12824722
              © 2003 S. Karger AG, Basel

              Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

              Page count
              Figures: 6, Tables: 2, References: 19, Pages: 8
              Categories
              Non-Invasive and Diagnostic Cardiology

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