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      Comparison of Transthoracic and Intraoperative Transesophageal Color Flow Doppler Assessment of Mitral and Aortic Regurgitation


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          Background: We examined the agreement between transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) and intraoperative prepump transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) in the assessment of left-sided regurgitant lesions and echocardiographic variables associated with grading discrepancies. Methods: The TTE and prepump TEE studies of 54 patients undergoing aortic-valve replacement for aortic stenosis were reviewed. Agreement and correlation in assessment of aortic (AR) and mitral regurgitation (MR) severity were evaluated. Results: There was no significant difference between mean TTE and prepump TEE grading of MR (0.23 ± 0.19 vs. 0.21 ± 0.15 jet area/area of the left atrium, p = 0.49), but the correlation between the two methods was weak (r = 0.40, p = 0.003), with an exact agreement of 54%. Prepump TEE tended to grade AR as more severe (mean grade 1.43 ± 0.94 vs. 1.24 ± 0.75, p = 0.058). The correlation between the two methods in AR assessment was fair (r = 0.70, p = 0.0001) with an agreement of 59%. For MR and AR grading, no significant correlations between valvular regurgitation severity and blood pressure differences between preoperative TTE and prepump TEE were found. In 17% of cases, discrepancies in identifying severe mitral or aortic valve regurgitation could have affected patient management. Conclusions: There is modest agreement in MR and AR assessment between TTE and prepump TEE. Cardiologists, cardiac surgeons, and anesthesiologists must be aware of differences between these methods when using prepump TEE to guide intraoperative decisions.

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          Age-related changes in aortic and mitral valve thickness: implications for two-dimensional echocardiography based on an autopsy study of 200 normal human hearts.

          The thicknesses at 3 sites of each aortic cusp (nodule, closing edge and middle part) and 2 sites of both mitral leaflets (closing edge and clear zone) were measured in 200 autopsy specimens of normal hearts, evenly distributed by age and sex. There were no significant correlations between valvular thickness and height, weight, heart weight or body surface area. The mean thickness at each site was not different between men and women but increased significantly with age (p less than 0.001). For 3 age groups (less than 20, 20 to 59 and greater than or equal to 60 years), the corresponding mean thicknesses (mm) of the aortic nodule were 0.67, 0.87 and 1.42; those for the anterior mitral leaflet were 1.30, 1.60 and 3.20; and those for the posterior mitral leaflet were 0.91, 1.13 and 2.04. For the aortic valve, the nodule was nearly twice as thick as the closing edge (p less than 0.001), and the closing edge was at least 25% thicker than the middle part (p less than 0.001). Furthermore, the posterior aortic cusp was thicker than the right and left cusps (p less than 0.05). For both mitral leaflets, the closing edge was thicker than the clear zone (p less than 0.05). Moreover, along the closing edges, the anterior leaflet was thicker than the posterior leaflet (p less than 0.05). These observations may be useful in echocardiographic evaluations of aortic and mitral valve sclerosis in elderly patients.
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            Comparison of transthoracic and transesophageal echocardiography for assessment of left-sided valvular regurgitation


              Author and article information

              S. Karger AG
              June 2003
              27 June 2003
              : 99
              : 3
              : 145-152
              Department of Medicine (Division of Cardiology), Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, Calif., USA
              70671 Cardiology 2003;99:145–152
              © 2003 S. Karger AG, Basel

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              Page count
              Figures: 6, Tables: 2, References: 19, Pages: 8
              Non-Invasive and Diagnostic Cardiology


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