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      Systemic inflammation score predicts postoperative prognosis of patients with clear-cell renal cell carcinoma

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          Abstract

          Background:

          Growing evidence indicates that inflammation has a crucial role in the development and progression of cancer. We developed a novel systemic inflammation score (SIS) based on preoperative serum albumin and lymphocyte-to-monocyte ratio (LMR), and examined its prognostic value for patients with clear-cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) after surgery.

          Methods:

          The study comprised 441 ccRCC patients undergoing nephrectomy between 2008 and 2009 in a single centre. The SIS was developed and its associations with clinicopathological features and overall survival (OS) were evaluated.

          Results:

          The SIS consisted of serum albumin and LMR that were both retained as independent indicators adjusting for other haematological and laboratory markers of systemic inflammation responses and traditional clinicopathological features. A high SIS was significantly associated with aggressive tumour behaviours and served as an independent prognostic factor of reduced OS. Furthermore, the SIS could significantly stratify patient prognosis in different tumour stages and Mayo Clinic stage, size, grade and necrosis scores. Incorporation of the SIS into a prognostic model including TNM stage, Fuhrman grade and lymphovascular invasion generated a nomogram, which predicted accurately 3- and 5-year survival for ccRCC patients.

          Conclusions:

          The SIS as a potentially powerful prognostic biomarker might improve traditional clinicopathological analysis to refine clinical outcome prediction for ccRCC patients after surgery.

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          Most cited references 12

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          Prognostic significance of morphologic parameters in renal cell carcinoma.

          The prognostic significance of morphologic parameters was evaluated in 103 patients with renal cell carcinoma diagnosed during 1961--1974. Pathologic material was classified as to pathologic stage, tumor size, cell arrangement, cell type and nuclear grade. Four nuclear grades (1--4) were defined in order of increasing nuclear size, irregularity and nucleolar prominence. Nuclear grade was more effective than each of the other parameters in predicting development of distant metastasis following nephrectomy. Among 45 patients who presented in Stage I, tumors classified as nuclear grade 1 did not metastasize for at least 5 years, whereas 50% of the higher grade tumors did so. Moreover, among Stage I tumors there was a significant difference in subsequent metastatic rate between nuclear grades 1 and 2. There was an apparent positive relationship between cell type and metastatic rate; clear cell tumors were less aggressive than predominantly granular cell tumors (metastatic rate 38% versus 71%). This relationship in part a function of the nuclear grade: only 5% of grade 3 and 4 tumors consisted of clear cells, whereas such high grades were seen in 57% of granular cell tumors. The size of the primary correlated well with the stage at the time of surgery. However, with the exception of extremely large and small tumors, the size was not useful in predicting the subsequent course of patients treated for Stage I tumors. Nuclear grade was the most significant prognostic criterion for the outcome of Stage I renal cell carcinoma.
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            The systemic inflammation-based Glasgow Prognostic Score: a decade of experience in patients with cancer.

            Since the initial work, a decade ago that the combination of C-reactive protein and albumin, the Glasgow Prognostic Score (GPS), had independent prognostic value in patients with cancer, there have been more than 60 studies (>30,000 patients) that have examined and validated the use of the GPS or the modified GPS (mGPS) in a variety of cancer scenarios. The present review provides a concise overview of these studies and comments on the current and future clinical utility of this simple objective systemic inflammation-based score. The GPS/mGPS had independent prognostic value in (a) unselected cohorts (4 studies, >19,400 patients) (b) operable disease (28 studies, >8,000 patients) (c) chemo/radiotherapy (11 studies, >1500 patients) (d) inoperable disease (11 studies, >2,000 patients). Association studies (15 studies, >2,000 patients) pointed to an increased GPS/mGPS being associated with increased weight and muscle loss, poor performance status, increased comorbidity, increased pro-inflammatory and angiogenic cytokines and complications on treatment. These studies have originated from 13 different countries, in particular the UK and Japan. A chronic systemic inflammatory response, as evidenced by the GPS/mGPS, is clearly implicated in the prognosis of patients with cancer in a variety of clinical scenarios. The GPS/mGPS is the most extensively validated of the systemic inflammation-based prognostic scores and therefore may be used in the routine clinical assessment of patients with cancer. It not only identifies patients at risk but also provides a well defined therapeutic target for future clinical trials. It remains to be determined whether the GPS has prognostic value in other disease states. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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              The epidemiology of renal cell carcinoma.

              Kidney cancer is among the 10 most frequently occurring cancers in Western communities. Globally, about 270 000 cases of kidney cancer are diagnosed yearly and 116 000 people die from the disease. Approximately 90% of all kidney cancers are renal cell carcinomas (RCC). The causes of RCC are not completely known. We have reviewed known aetiologic factors. The data provided in the current review are based on a thorough review of available original and review articles on RCC epidemiology with a systemic literature search using Medline. Smoking, overweight and obesity, and germline mutations in specific genes are established risk factors for RCC. Hypertension and advanced kidney disease, which makes dialysis necessary, also increase RCC risk. Specific dietary habits and occupational exposure to specific carcinogens are suspected risk factors, but results in the literature are inconclusive. Alcohol consumption seems to have a protective effect for reasons yet unknown. Hardly any information is available for some factors that may have a high a priori role in the causation of RCC, such as salt consumption. Large collaborative studies with uniform data collection seem to be necessary to elucidate a complete list of established risk factors of RCC. This is necessary to make successful prevention possible for a disease that is diagnosed frequently in a stage where curative treatment is not possible anymore. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Br J Cancer
                Br. J. Cancer
                British Journal of Cancer
                Nature Publishing Group
                0007-0920
                1532-1827
                11 August 2015
                02 July 2015
                : 113
                : 4
                : 626-633
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Urology, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University , 180 Fenglin Road, Shanghai, China
                [2 ]Department of Urology, Shanghai Cancer Center, Fudan University , Shanghai, China
                [3 ]Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Shanghai Medical College of Fudan University, Fudan University , Mailbox 103, 138 Yixueyuan Road, Shanghai, China
                Author notes
                Article
                bjc2015241
                10.1038/bjc.2015.241
                4647686
                26135896
                Copyright © 2015 Cancer Research UK

                From twelve months after its original publication, this work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-Share Alike 4.0 Unported License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0/

                Categories
                Molecular Diagnostics

                Oncology & Radiotherapy

                renal cell carcinoma, inflammation, biomarker, prognosis, nomogram

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