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      Could music potentially serve as a functional alternative to alcohol consumption? The importance of music motives among drinking and non-drinking adolescents


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          Background and aims: This study investigated whether adolescents who drink and those who are teetotal differ in the link between music motives and health-related outcomes (life satisfaction, self-rated health, school pressure, somatic complaints, depressed and aggressive mood, physical powerlessness, frequency of being bullied and bullying others and evenings spent out with friends). It also looked at whether associations between music motives and health-related outcomes remained significant when drinking motives were included among drinkers. Methods: Confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation models were estimated based on data from 4,481 adolescents from Switzerland (mean age 14.5, SD = 0.9). Results: It was confirmed that the four music motives and the four drinking motives obtained by crossing the valence (positive–negative) and the source (internal–external) of expected change in affect form distinct dimensions (i.e. the 8-factor model best fitted the data). Drinkers and non-drinkers differed in the various links between music motives and health-related outcomes. For example, almost all the links between conformity music motives and the health-related outcomes were significant for non-drinkers but not for drinkers. Enhancement music motives, by contrast, were often significant for drinkers but not for non-drinkers. Coping music motives were significant among both drinkers and non-drinkers. These links were basically unchanged when drinking motives were taken into account. Discussion and conclusions: This study indicates that music serves important functions in the lives of adolescents, even among those who use alcohol for different motives. This makes listening to music a promising potential alternative to alcohol use.

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          Most cited references45

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            Motivations for sex and risky sexual behavior among adolescents and young adults: a functional perspective.

            The implications of a functionalist perspective for understanding sexual risk taking are explored. Key motivational dimensions thought to underlie human behavior (viz., approach vs. avoidance, autonomy vs. relatedness) were used to identify 4 broad domains of sexual motivations and to develop a measure of specific motives within each of these domains. Data from both college student and community samples are used to demonstrate the psychometric adequacy of these scales and to show that having sex for different reasons predicts distinctive patterns of sexual risk taking both cross-sectionally and longitudinally: that selection into specific types of sexual relationships partially mediates these effects; and that these needs may be differentially expressed, or even suppressed, depending on relationship context. Results provide strong support for the functionalist perspective on behavior and indicate that an adequate understanding of sexual risk-taking behavior must take into account the various needs and goals that such behavior can serve.
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              Subjective health complaints in adolescence--reliability and validity of survey methods.

              This paper studies test-retest reliability and validity of one measure of adolescent health complaints. The test-retest included an eight-item symptom checklist developed for the survey of Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (n=344). Qualitative analysis showed adequate validity for most items. For the total sample, all items were found to have adequate intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) in the range 0.61-0.75. There were inter-item differences and girls generally received the higher values. Most changes were within one category. Adolescents' understanding of 16 complaints was studied by interviews with 38 adolescents. A few items showed ambiguity in interviews despite adequate test-retest stability. Copyright 2001 The Association for Professionals in Services for Adolescents.

                Author and article information

                J Behav Addict
                Journal of Behavioral Addictions
                Akadémiai Kiadó (Budapest )
                December 2014
                18 December 2014
                : 3
                : 4
                : 223-230
                1Behavioural Science Institute, University of Nijmegen, the Netherlands
                2Addiction Switzerland, Research Institute, Lausanne
                Author notes
                * Corresponding author: Emmanuel Kuntsche, PhD; Addiction Switzerland, Research Institute, PO Box 870, CH 1001 Lausanne, Switzerland; Phone: +41 21 321 29 52; Fax: +41 21 321 29 40; E-mail: ekuntsche@ 123456suchtschweiz.ch
                © 2014 Akadémiai Kiadó

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                : 6 December 2013
                : 14 October 2014
                : 19 October 2014
                Full-Length Report

                music motives,drinking motives,alcohol use,adolescents
                music motives, drinking motives, alcohol use, adolescents


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