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      Effects of Arbutin on Radiation-Induced Micronuclei in Mice Bone Marrow Cells and Its Definite Dose Reduction Factor

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          Abstract

          Background:

          Interactions of free radicals from ionizing radiation with DNA can induce DNA damage and lead to mutagenesis and carsinogenesis. With respect to radiation damage to human, it is important to protect humans from side effects induced by ionizing radiation. In the present study, the effects of arbutin were investigated by using the micronucleus test for anti-clastogenic activity, to calculate the ratio of polychromatic erythrocyte to polychromatic erythrocyte plus normochromatic erythrocyte (PCE/PCE+NCE) in order to show cell proliferation activity.

          Methods:

          Arbutin (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg) was intraperitoneally (ip)administered to NMRI mice two hours before gamma radiation at 2 and 4 gray (Gy). The frequency of micronuclei in 1000 PCEs (MnPCEs) and the ratio of PCE/PCE+NCE were calculated for each sample. Data were statistically evaluated using one-way ANOVA, Tukey HSD test, and t-test.

          Results:

          The findings indicated that gamma radiation at 2 and 4 Gy extremely increased the frequencies of MnPCE (P<0.001) while reducing PCE/PCE+NCE (P<0.001) compared to the control group. All three doses of arbutin before irradiation significantly reduced the frequencies of MnPCEs and increased the ratio of PCE/PCE+NCE in mice bone marrow compared to the non-drug-treated irradiated control (P<0.001). All three doses of arbutin had no toxicity effect on bone marrow cells. The calculated dose reduction factor (DRF) showed DRF=1.93 for 2Gy and DRF=2.22 for 4 Gy.

          Conclusion:

          Our results demonstrated that arbutin gives significant protection to rat bone against the clastogenic and cytotoxic effects of gamma irradiation.

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          Most cited references 29

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          The micronucleus test.

           Kurt Schmid (1975)
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            Toxicogenomics of A375 human malignant melanoma cells treated with arbutin.

            Although arbutin is a natural product and widely used as an ingredient in skin care products, its effect on the gene expression level of human skin with malignant melanoma cells is rarely reported. We aim to investigate the genotoxic effect of arbutin on the differential gene expression profiling in A375 human malignant melanoma cells through its effect on tumorigenesis and related side-effect. The DNA microarray analysis provided the differential gene expression pattern of arbutin-treated A375 cells with the significant changes of 324 differentially expressed genes, containing 88 up-regulated genes and 236 down-regulated genes. The gene ontology of differentially expressed genes was classified as belonging to cellular component, molecular function and biological process. In addition, four down-regulated genes of AKT1, CLECSF7, FGFR3, and LRP6 served as candidate genes and correlated to suppress the biological processes in the cell cycle of cancer progression and in the downstream signaling pathways of malignancy of melanocytic tumorigenesis.
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              Pyrus biossieriana Buhse leaf extract: An antioxidant, antihyperglycaemic and antihyperlipidemic agent.

              The antihyperglycaemic, antihyperlipidemic and antioxidant effects of wild pear (Pyrus biossieriana Buhse) leaf extract were investigated. An alloxan-induced rat model of hyperglycaemia was used to evaluate the antihyperglycaemic, antihyperlipidemic and antioxidant properties of the Pyrus biossieriana Buhse leaf extract. The arbutin content of Pyrus biossieriana Buhse leaves, measured by HPLC, was 12.6 dry weight percent. Administration of the Pyrus biossieriana Buhse leaf extract (at doses of 500 and 1000mg/kg/day) significantly reduced the increase in serum glucose concentration seen in alloxan-treated hyperglycaemic rats. Both concentrations of the extract enhanced serum insulin levels compared to the control group. Both high and low doses of the extract decreased serum triacylglycerol (TG) and cholesterol (CHOL) levels as compared to controls. Serum antioxidant levels were significantly higher in rats treated with low (500mg/kg/day) and high (1000mg/kg/day) doses of Pyrus biossieriana Buhse extracts at 24, 48 and 72h after alloxan injection than in control rats. This study demonstrated that Pyrus biossieriana Buhse leaf extract reduces blood glucose and lipid levels and increases antioxidant status in rats with alloxan-induced hyperglycaemia. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Iran J Med Sci
                Iran J Med Sci
                Iranian Journal of Medical Sciences
                Iranian Journal of Medical Sciences (Iran )
                0253-0716
                1735-3688
                May 2016
                : 41
                : 3
                : 180-185
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Radiobiology and Radiation Protection, Babol University of Medical Sciences, Babol, Iran
                [2 ]Cellular & Molecular Biology Research Center, Department of Medical physics, Babol University of Medical Sciences, Babol, Iran
                [3 ]Department of Medical Genetics, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran
                [4 ]Laboratory of Cytogenetic, Novin Medical Radiation Institute, Tehran, Iran
                [5 ]Department of Biochemistry, Cellular and Molecular Biology Research Center, Babol University of Medical Sciences, Babol, Iran
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Ali Shabestani Monfared, PhD; Shahid Rajaee Hospital, Shariati Street, Postal Code: 47419-99879, Babol, Iran Tel: +98 911 1230475 Fax: +98 11 35289733 monfared1345@ 123456gmail.com
                Article
                IJMS-41-180
                4876295
                27217601
                Copyright: © Iranian Journal of Medical Sciences

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 3.0 Unported, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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