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      Aspirin and Percutaneous Coronary Angioplasty Are Associated with a Decline in Mortality from Cardiogenic Shock


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          Background and Methods: Despite the significant progress in the care and outcome of patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI), the impact of evolving therapies on the incidence and outcome of patients with cardiogenic shock complicating AMI has been questioned. We analyzed trends in the incidence, care and outcome of cardiogenic shock from four national surveys conducted during 1992–1998. Results: Of the 5,351 AMI patients admitted to all coronary care units in Israel, 254 (4.7%) developed cardiogenic shock. The incidence of cardiogenic shock decreased over time (5.8, 5.1, 4.3 and 4.4% for the years 1992, 1994, 1996 and 1998, respectively, p = 0.08). Concomitantly, there was an increase in utilization of coronary angiography, urgent angioplasty and intra-aortic balloon counterpulsation. In addition, there was an increase in hospital use of aspirin, nitrates, ACE inhibitors and β-blockers. Patients with shock were more likely to die within 7 days compared with AMI patients not having shock (65 vs. 4%; p < 0.001). During the study period, the mortality of patients with shock decreased: at 7 days (72% in 1992 to 60% in 1998; p = 0.09), at 30 days (87 to 70%, respectively; p = 0.01) and at 6 months (89 to 77%, respectively; p = 0.02). Both aspirin and angioplasty were independently associated with improved outcome after adjustment for baseline characteristics and study period. Conclusions: Although the mortality rate of cardiogenic shock complicating AMI remains high, the increased utilization of aspirin and angioplasty is associated with improved outcome.

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          Trends in the incidence of myocardial infarction and in mortality due to coronary heart disease, 1987 to 1994.

          To clarify the determinants of contemporary trends in mortality from coronary heart disease (CHD), we conducted surveillance of hospital admissions for myocardial infarction and of in-hospital and out-of-hospital deaths due to CHD among 35-to-74-year-old residents of four communities of varying size in the United States (a total of 352,481 persons in 1994). Between 1987 and 1994, we estimate that there were 11,869 hospitalizations for myocardial infarction (on the basis of 8572 hospitalizations sampled) and 3407 fatal coronary events (3023 sampled). The largest average annual decrease in mortality due to CHD occurred among white men (change in mortality, -4.7 percent; 95 percent confidence interval, -2.2 to -7.1 percent), followed by white women (-4.5 percent; 95 percent confidence interval, -0.7 to -8.2 percent), black women (-4.1 percent; 95 percent confidence interval, -10.3 to +2.5 percent), and black men (-2.5 percent; 95 percent confidence interval, -6.9 to +2.2 percent). Overall, in-hospital mortality from CHD fell by 5.1 percent per year, whereas out-of-hospital mortality declined by 3.6 percent per year. There was no evidence of a decline in the incidence of hospitalization for a first myocardial infarction among either men or women; in fact, such hospital admissions increased by 7.4 percent per year (95 percent confidence interval for the change, +0.5 to +14.8 percent) among black women and 2.9 percent per year (95 percent confidence interval, -3.6 to +9.9 percent) among black men. Rates of recurrent myocardial infarction decreased, and survival after myocardial infarction improved. From 1987 to 1994, we observed a stable or slightly increasing incidence of hospitalization for myocardial infarction. Nevertheless, there were significant annual decreases in mortality from CHD. The decline in mortality in the four communities we studied may be due largely to improvements in the treatment and secondary prevention of myocardial infarction.
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            Temporal trends in cardiogenic shock complicating acute myocardial infarction.

            Limited information is available on trends in the incidence of and mortality due to cardiogenic shock complicating acute myocardial infarction. We studied the incidence of cardiogenic shock complicating acute myocardial infarction and in-hospital death rates among patients with this condition in a single community from 1975 through 1997. We conducted an observational study of 9076 residents of metropolitan Worcester, Massachusetts, who were hospitalized with confirmed acute myocardial infarction in all local hospitals during 11 one-year periods between 1975 and 1997. Our study included periods before and after the advent of reperfusion therapy. The incidence of cardiogenic shock remained relatively stable over time, averaging 7.1 percent among patients with acute myocardial infarction. The results of a multivariable regression analysis indicated that the patients hospitalized during recent study years were not at a substantially lower risk for shock than patients hospitalized in the mid-to-late 1970s. Patients in whom cardiogenic shock developed had a significantly greater risk of dying during hospitalization (71.7 percent) than those who did not have cardiogenic shock (12.0 percent, P<0.001). A significant trend toward an increase in in-hospital survival among patients with cardiogenic shock in the mid-to-late 1990s was found in crude and adjusted analyses. Our findings indicate no significant change in the incidence of cardiogenic shock complicating acute myocardial infarction over a 23-year period. However, the short-term survival rate has increased in recent years at the same time as the use of coronary reperfusion strategies has increased.
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              Cardiogenic shock.


                Author and article information

                S. Karger AG
                July 2001
                20 July 2001
                : 95
                : 3
                : 119-125
                aCardiology Department, Soroka Medical Center, Faculty of Health Sciences, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva, bCardiology Department, Rabin Medical Center, Petah-Tikva, and cNeufeld Cardiac Research Institute, Sheba Medical Center, Tel-Hashomer, Israel
                47357 Cardiology 2001;95:119–125
                © 2001 S. Karger AG, Basel

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                Page count
                Figures: 1, Tables: 5, References: 18, Pages: 7
                General Cardiology


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