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      Changes in renal papillary density after hydration therapy in calcium stone formers


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          Previous studies have shown that, compared with non-stone formers, stone formers have a higher papillary density measured with computer tomography (CT) scan. The effect of increased hydration on such papillary density in idiopathic calcium stone formers is not known.


          Patients with recurrent calcium oxalate stones undergoing endourological procedures for renal stones at our Institution from June 2013 to June 2014 were considered eligible for enrolment. Enrolled patients underwent a baseline unenhanced CT scan before the urological procedure; after endoscopic removal of their stones, the patients were instructed to drink at least 2 L/day of a hypotonic, oligomineral water low in sodium and minerals (fixed residue at 180 °C < 200 mg/L) for at least 12 months. Finally, the patients underwent a follow-up unenhanced CT scan during hydration regimen.


          Twenty-five patients were prospectively enrolled and underwent baseline and follow-up CT scans. At baseline, mean papillary density was 43.2 ± 6.6 Hounsfield Units (HU) (43.2 ± 6.7 for the left kidney and 42.8 ± 7.1 HU for the right kidney). At follow-up and after at least 12 months of hydration regimen, mean papillary density was significantly reduced at 35.4 ± 4.2 HU (35.8 ± 5.0 for the left kidney and 35.1 ± 4.2 HU for the right kidney); the mean difference between baseline and follow-up was − 7.8 HU (95% confidence interval − 10.6 to − 5.1 HU, p < 0.001).


          Increased fluid intake in patients with recurrent calcium oxalate stones was associated with a significant reduction in renal papillary density.

          Trial registration

          NCT03343743, 15/11/2017 (Retrospectively registered).

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          Most cited references 14

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          Urinary volume, water and recurrences in idiopathic calcium nephrolithiasis: a 5-year randomized prospective study.

           L Borghi,  T Meschi,  F Amato (1996)
          We define the role of urine volume as a stone risk factor in idiopathic calcium stone disease and test the actual preventive effectiveness of a high water intake. We studied 101 controls and 199 patients from the first idiopathic calcium stone episode. After a baseline study period the stone formers were divided by randomization into 2 groups (1 and 2) and they were followed prospectively for 5 years. Followup in group 1 only involved a high intake of water without any dietetic change, while followup in group 2 did not involve any treatment. Each year clinical, laboratory and radiological evaluation was obtained to determine urinary stone risk profile (including relative supersaturations of calcium oxalate, brushite and uric acid by Equil 2), recurrence rate and mean time to relapse. The original urine volume was lower in male and female stone formers compared to controls (men with calcium oxalate stones 1,057 +/- 238 ml./24 hours versus normal men 1,401 +/- 562 ml./24 hours, p < 0.0001 and women calcium oxalate stones 990 +/- 230 ml./24 hours versus normal women 1,239 +/- 440 ml./24 hours, p < 0.001). During followup recurrences were noted within 5 years in 12 of 99 group 1 patients and in 27 of 100 group 2 patients (p = 0.008). The average interval for recurrences was 38.7 +/- 13.2 months in group 1 and 25.1 +/- 16.4 months in group 2 (p = 0.016). The relative supersaturations for calcium oxalate, brushite and uric acid were much greater in baseline urine of the stone patients in both groups compared to controls. During followup, baseline values decreased sharply only in group 1. Finally the baseline urine in patients with recurrences was characterized by a higher calcium excretion compared to urine of the patients without recurrences in both groups. We conclude that urine volume is a real stone risk factor in nephrolithiasis and that a large intake of water is the initial therapy for prevention of stone recurrences. In cases of hypercalciuria it is suitable to prescribe adjuvant specific diets or drug therapy.
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            Direct and indirect costs of nephrolithiasis in an employed population: opportunity for disease management?

            More than 5% of the United States population has been diagnosed with nephrolithiasis and about one half of (first-time) stone formers will have a recurrence within 5 years. The prevalence of nephrolithiasis is concentrated among working age adults, yet little prior work has examined the economic burden of the disease on employers and their employees. We sought to estimate the direct and indirect costs of nephrolithiasis for working age adults (18-64) with employer-provided insurance.
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              The role of Randall's plaques in the pathogenesis of calcium stones.

              Knowledge of the inciting lesion in kidney stone formation has remained rudimentary until quite recently. Randall theorized that areas of apatite plaque on the renal papillae would be an ideal site for an overgrowth of calcium oxalate to develop into a calculus. We reviewed in vivo data that have further defined the role of Randall's plaques in stone disease. We examined a set of literature that tested 2 hypotheses, that is 1) Randall's plaques are a specialized disease that begins as apatite in a unique region of the kidney due to local driving forces and anatomy, and 2) stones that arise from causes different from common calcium oxalate stones do not necessarily arise on plaque. Intraoperative papillary and cortical biopsy specimens obtained during percutaneous nephrolithotomy from the kidneys of 3 types of stone formers (idiopathic calcium stone formers, patients with stones due to bariatric procedures and brushite stone formers) showed unique histopathological findings. The metabolic and surgical pathological findings in 3 distinct groups of stone formers demonstrate that the histology of the renal papillae from a stone former is particular to the clinical setting.

                Author and article information

                +39-06-3015-9729 , pietromanuel.ferraro@unicatt.it
                BMC Urol
                BMC Urol
                BMC Urology
                BioMed Central (London )
                12 November 2018
                12 November 2018
                : 18
                [1 ]GRID grid.414603.4, U.O.C. Nefrologia, , Fondazione Policlinico Universitario A. Gemelli IRCCS, ; Roma, Italia
                [2 ]GRID grid.414603.4, U.O.C. Clinica Urologica, , Fondazione Policlinico Universitario A. Gemelli IRCCS, ; Roma, Italia
                [3 ]GRID grid.414603.4, U.O.C. Radiologia, , Fondazione Policlinico Universitario A. Gemelli IRCCS, ; Roma, Italia
                [4 ]GRID grid.414603.4, U.O.C. Biochimica Clinica, , Fondazione Policlinico Universitario A. Gemelli IRCCS, ; Roma, Italia
                [5 ]ISNI 0000 0001 0941 3192, GRID grid.8142.f, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, ; Roma, Italia
                © The Author(s). 2018

                Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

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                © The Author(s) 2018


                kidney stones, ct scan, randall’s plaque, hydration therapy


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