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      Changes of Serum β-Endorphin by Programmed Exercise Training Are Correlated with Improvement of Clinical Symptoms and Quality of Life in Female Mitral Valve Prolapse Syndrome

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          Abstract

          Background: Mitral valve prolapse (MVP) is a common entity in female population. Although this is a minor disease, it may cause annoying symptoms that impair quality of life (QOL), and no established therapy for this problem. The aim of this study isto examine whether programmed exercise training by treadmill in female MVP syndrome would improve clinical symptoms and QOL. Methods: An interventional study of 39 females with MVP syndrome with treadmill exercise endurance training for 12 weeks. Every individual received training for 30 min a day, thrice a week for 12 weeks. Baseline and post-exercise at 12 weeks serum β-endorphins were measured. Symptom improvement was assessed by the MVP symptom checklist questionnaire and the Euro-QOL-5D was used to measure QOL improvement in these females. Results: The mean serum β-endorphin increased from 0.5 to 1.68 ng/ml (p = 0.001) in the exercise group (n = 18) after 12 weeks exercise, whereas the control group (n = 21) did not show any significant changes (0.44 vs. 0.43 ng/ml). Major symptoms of MVP such as chest pain, palpitation, fatigue were improved significantly by the assessment of MVP symptom checklist. The QOL of the exercised females also showed significant changes. Conclusions: Through programmed exercise training in these MVP females, the improvement of symptoms and QOL is parallel to the increase of serum β-endorphin. This result implicates that MVP females should initiate exercise to tackle this annoying problem.

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          Most cited references 16

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          Enzyme immunoassay techniques. An overview.

          In spite of the great variety of enzyme immunoassays (EIA) they can be classified into two groups 'analyte-observed' and 'reagent-observed' assays, depending on their reaction principle. The latter are favored by use of monoclonal antibodies and are characterized by a greater sensitivity, a larger measuring range, a lower susceptibility to disturbing influences. They can be used only for detection of macromolecules. For heterogeneous EIAs to be used on laboratory scale, simple adsorption of antigens and antibodies is still recommendable though affinity constants decrease by at least one order of magnitude and antibody density at the solid phase and analyte binding capacity are not parallel due to increasing steric hindrance. For this reason, the antibody with the higher affinity constant should therefore always be used as solid-phase antibody. Microparticles used as solid phase for heterogeneous assays, due to their very high binding capacity for the analyte and extremely short diffusion distances, guarantee 'one step' assays of only a few minutes. Of the limited number of enzymes suitable as markers in immunoassays, horseradish peroxidase is the enzyme of choice followed by alkaline phosphatase. Although enzyme and enzyme-labelled reagents are detectable by fluorogenic product measuring with a sensitivity, which is 10-1000 times higher than using chromogenic substrates, the sensitivity of the assays can be increased only by factor 2-10. Labelling enzymes cannot only be covalently bound to the antibody, but also via anti-enzyme antibodies. Pros and cons of the different methods of coupling the enzyme/anti-enzyme complex to analyte-containing immune complexes are discussed. Different EIA variants to detect specific antibodies are reviewed. Among them only capture EIAs permit precise isotype analysis of antibodies of a distinct idiotype. Homogeneous EIAs are widely spread for hapten determination but even variants based on proximal linkage are no alternatives to heterogeneous EIAs for determination of macromolecules. Different parameters are defined which permit to assess the quality of an immunoassay and which should be used in routine assays as internal controls in the laboratory.
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            Running as treatment for depression

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              Depression as a powerful discriminator between physically active and sedentary middle-aged men.

              This study identifies the relative importance of psychological dimensions that discriminate between habitually physically active and sedentary men. The data support the notion that physical activity has psychological benefits. Subjects (N = 22) were normal, medically healthy middle-aged men (40-60 years of age). Data were collected on selected physiological (treadmill) and psychological (MMPI) variables and replicated within four months. The Student's t-test and discriminant function analysis were used in the statistical analysis. Physically active men (n = 11) have lower depression (scale 2) and lower social introversion (scale 10) than the sedentary men (n = 11). The physically active men may exhibit MMPI scale differences in 'neurotic' tendencies from the sedentary men, but there is no apparent difference in scales suggestive of 'psychotic' tendencies. Depression (scale 2) is the most powerful discriminator between physically active and sedentary men, followed by hysteria (scale 3) and social introversion (scale 10). In conclusion, our data identify depression as the most important MMPI scale that discriminates between physically active and sedentary men.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                CRD
                Cardiology
                10.1159/issn.0008-6312
                Cardiology
                S. Karger AG
                0008-6312
                1421-9751
                2007
                November 2007
                14 November 2006
                : 108
                : 4
                : 252-257
                Affiliations
                Cardiology Division, aShin-Kong Wu Ho Su Memorial Hospital, and bTaipei Medical University-Wan Fang Hospital, cCollege of Nursing, Taipei Medical University, and dDepartment of Laboratory Medicine, Taipei Medical University-Wan Fang Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan; eFaculty of Chinese Medicine, Macau University of Science and Technology, Macau, China
                Article
                96952 Cardiology 2007;108:252–257
                10.1159/000096952
                17108680
                © 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Tables: 2, References: 25, Pages: 6
                Categories
                Original Research

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