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      Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamases: a Clinical Update

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      Clinical Microbiology Reviews

      American Society for Microbiology

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          Abstract

          SUMMARY

          Extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) are a rapidly evolving group of β-lactamases which share the ability to hydrolyze third-generation cephalosporins and aztreonam yet are inhibited by clavulanic acid. Typically, they derive from genes for TEM-1, TEM-2, or SHV-1 by mutations that alter the amino acid configuration around the active site of these β-lactamases. This extends the spectrum of β-lactam antibiotics susceptible to hydrolysis by these enzymes. An increasing number of ESBLs not of TEM or SHV lineage have recently been described. The presence of ESBLs carries tremendous clinical significance. The ESBLs are frequently plasmid encoded. Plasmids responsible for ESBL production frequently carry genes encoding resistance to other drug classes (for example, aminoglycosides). Therefore, antibiotic options in the treatment of ESBL-producing organisms are extremely limited. Carbapenems are the treatment of choice for serious infections due to ESBL-producing organisms, yet carbapenem-resistant isolates have recently been reported. ESBL-producing organisms may appear susceptible to some extended-spectrum cephalosporins. However, treatment with such antibiotics has been associated with high failure rates. There is substantial debate as to the optimal method to prevent this occurrence. It has been proposed that cephalosporin breakpoints for the Enterobacteriaceae should be altered so that the need for ESBL detection would be obviated. At present, however, organizations such as the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (formerly the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards) provide guidelines for the detection of ESBLs in klebsiellae and Escherichia coli. In common to all ESBL detection methods is the general principle that the activity of extended-spectrum cephalosporins against ESBL-producing organisms will be enhanced by the presence of clavulanic acid. ESBLs represent an impressive example of the ability of gram-negative bacteria to develop new antibiotic resistance mechanisms in the face of the introduction of new antimicrobial agents.

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          Most cited references 396

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          Novel carbapenem-hydrolyzing beta-lactamase, KPC-1, from a carbapenem-resistant strain of Klebsiella pneumoniae.

          A Klebsiella pneumoniae isolate showing moderate to high-level imipenem and meropenem resistance was investigated. The MICs of both drugs were 16 microg/ml. The beta-lactamase activity against imipenem and meropenem was inhibited in the presence of clavulanic acid. The strain was also resistant to extended-spectrum cephalosporins and aztreonam. Isoelectric focusing studies demonstrated three beta-lactamases, with pIs of 7.2 (SHV-29), 6.7 (KPC-1), and 5.4 (TEM-1). The presence of bla(SHV) and bla(TEM) genes was confirmed by specific PCRs and DNA sequence analysis. Transformation and conjugation studies with Escherichia coli showed that the beta-lactamase with a pI of 6.7, KPC-1 (K. pneumoniae carbapenemase-1), was encoded on an approximately 50-kb nonconjugative plasmid. The gene, bla(KPC-1), was cloned in E. coli and shown to confer resistance to imipenem, meropenem, extended-spectrum cephalosporins, and aztreonam. The amino acid sequence of the novel carbapenem-hydrolyzing beta-lactamase, KPC-1, showed 45% identity to the pI 9.7 carbapenem-hydrolyzing beta-lactamase, Sme-1, from Serratia marcescens S6. Hydrolysis studies showed that purified KPC-1 hydrolyzed not only carbapenems but also penicillins, cephalosporins, and monobactams. KPC-1 had the highest affinity for meropenem. The kinetic studies also revealed that clavulanic acid and tazobactam inhibited KPC-1. An examination of the outer membrane proteins of the parent K. pneumoniae strain demonstrated that the strain does not express detectable levels of OmpK35 and OmpK37, although OmpK36 is present. We concluded that carbapenem resistance in K. pneumoniae strain 1534 is mainly due to production of a novel Bush group 2f, class A, carbapenem-hydrolyzing beta-lactamase, KPC-1, although alterations in porin expression may also play a role.
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            A functional classification scheme for beta-lactamases and its correlation with molecular structure

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              Quinolone resistance from a transferable plasmid.

              Bacteria can mutate to acquire quinolone resistance by target alterations or diminished drug accumulation. Plasmid-mediated resistance to quinolones in clinical isolates has been claimed but not confirmed. We investigated whether a multiresistance plasmid could transfer resistance to quinolones between bacteria. We transferred resistance between strains by conjugation. The resistance plasmid was visualised in different hosts by agarose-gel electrophoresis. We determined the frequency of spontaneous mutations to ciprofloxacin or nalidixic-acid resistance in Escherichia coli strains, with or without the quinolone resistance plasmid. A multiresistance plasmid (pMG252) from a clinical isolate of Klebsiella pneumoniae was found to increase quinolone resistance to minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) as high as 32 microg/mL for ciprofloxacin when transferred to strains of K pneumoniae deficient in outer-membrane porins. Much lower resistance was seen when pMG252 was introduced into K pneumoniae or E coli strains with normal porins. The plasmid had a wide host range and expressed quinolone resistance in other enterobacteriaceae and in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. From a plasmid-containing E coli strain with ciprofloxacin MIC of 0.25 microg/mL and nalidixic-acid MIC of 32 microg/mL, quinolone-resistant mutants could be obtained at more than 100 times the frequency of a plasmid-free strain, reaching MICs for ciprofloxacin of 4 microg/mL and for nalidixic acid of 256 microg/mL. Transferable resistance to fluoroquinines and nalidixic acid has been found in a clinical isolate of K pneumoniae on a broad host range plasmid. Although resistance was low in wild-type strains, higher levels of quinolone resistance arose readily by mutation. Such a plasmid can speed the development and spread of resistance to these valuable antimicrobial agents.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Clinical Microbiology Reviews
                CMR
                American Society for Microbiology
                0893-8512
                1098-6618
                October 2005
                October 2005
                : 18
                : 4
                : 657-686
                Article
                10.1128/CMR.18.4.657-686.2005
                1265908
                16223952
                © 2005
                Product
                Self URI (article page): https://CMR.asm.org/content/18/4/657

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