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      Nutritional status, dietary intake, and health-related quality of life in outpatients with COPD

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          Malnutrition is common in patients with COPD; however, little is known about its impacts on health-related quality of life (QoL) among patients with COPD. This study aimed to explore the nutritional status and dietary intake among outpatients with COPD in Vietnam and its possible associations with QoL.


          A cross-sectional study was carried out in COPD outpatients visiting the COPD management unit at the National Lung Hospital, Hanoi, Vietnam between May 2017 and July 2017. Consecutive outpatients with a confirmed diagnosis of COPD were recruited with written inform consent. The nutritional status of participants was assessed using Subjective Global Assessment (SGA), and dietary intake via a 24-hour recall interview. The St George Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) for COPD was used to investigate the participants’ QoL. Sociodemographic and clinical data were extracted from hospital records.


          Of 168 COPD outpatients involved in the study, three-quarters (74.4%) were diagnosed as malnourished (SGA B/C) and 81.5% reported unintentional weight loss. Most of the patients did not meet their estimated energy and protein requirements (85.7% and 89.9%, respectively). Malnutrition was significantly associated with disease severity ( P=0.039) and ratio of protein intake to estimated requirement ( P=0.005). QoL was low for all levels of malnutrition or disease severity, with well-nourished participants and those with less disease severity having better QoL ( P=0.006 and P<0.001, respectively). With an extra meal per day, the odds of having malnutrition decreased 5.6 times ( P<0.05) and the total SGRQ reduced 3.61 scores ( P<0.05) indicating a better QoL.


          Malnutrition and weight loss are prevalent among COPD outpatients. Most of the patients had inadequate dietary intake and low QoL. Nutrition counselling including increasing the number of meals per day with a focus on energy- and protein-rich foods may help improving nutritional status and QoL of patients with COPD in Vietnam.

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          Most cited references 36

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          Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Tobacco smoking is established as a major risk factor, but emerging evidence suggests that other risk factors are important, especially in developing countries. An estimated 25-45% of patients with COPD have never smoked; the burden of non-smoking COPD is therefore much higher than previously believed. About 3 billion people, half the worldwide population, are exposed to smoke from biomass fuel compared with 1.01 billion people who smoke tobacco, which suggests that exposure to biomass smoke might be the biggest risk factor for COPD globally. We review the evidence for the association of COPD with biomass fuel, occupational exposure to dusts and gases, history of pulmonary tuberculosis, chronic asthma, respiratory-tract infections during childhood, outdoor air pollution, and poor socioeconomic status.
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            Appetite is regulated by a complex system of central and peripheral signals which interact in order to modulate the individual response to nutrient ingestion. Peripheral regulation includes satiety signals and adiposity signals, while central control is accomplished by several effectors, including the neuropeptidergic, monoaminergic and endocannabinoid systems. Satiety signals, including cholecystokinin (CCK), glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and peptide YY (PYY), originate from the gastrointestinal (GI) tract during a meal and, through the vagus nerve, reach the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) in the caudal brainstem. From NTS afferents fibers project to the arcuate nucleus (ARC), where satiety signals are integrated with adiposity signals, namely leptin and insulin, and with several hypothalamic and supra-hypothalamic inputs, thus creating a complex network of neural circuits which finally elaborate the individual response to a meal. As for the neuropeptidergic system, ARC neurons secrete orexigenic substances, such as neuropeptide Y (NPY) and agouti-related peptide (AGRP), and anorexigenic peptides such as pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) and cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART). Other brain areas involved in the control of food intake are located downstream the ARC: among these, the paraventricular nucleus (PVN), which produces anorexigenic peptides such as thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH), corticotrophin releasing hormone (CRH) and oxytocin, the lateral hypothalamus (LHA) and perifornical area (PFA), secreting the orexigenic substances orexin-A (OXA) and melanin concentrating hormone (MCH). A great interest in endocannabinoids, important players in the regulation of food intake, has recently developed. In conclusion, the present work reviews the most recent insights into the complex and redundant molecular mechanisms regulating food intake, focusing on the most encouraging perspectives for the treatment of obesity.
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                Author and article information

                Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis
                Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis
                International Journal of COPD
                International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
                Dove Medical Press
                14 January 2019
                : 14
                : 215-226
                [1 ]School of Exercise and Nutrition Sciences, Faculty of Health Queensland University of Technology, Kelvin Grove, QLD, Australia, thanhha.nguyen@
                [2 ]Department of Nutrition and Food Safety, Institute for Preventive Medicine and Public Health, Hanoi Medical University, Hanoi, Vietnam, thanhha.nguyen@
                [3 ]Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Princess Alexandra Hospital, Brisbane, Australia
                [4 ]National Lung Hospital, Hanoi, Vietnam
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Ha Thanh Nguyen, School of Exercise and Nutrition Sciences, Faculty of Health, Queensland University of Technology, Victoria Park Road, QLD 4059, Brisbane, Australia, Tel +61 73 138 9199, Email thanhha.nguyen@
                © 2019 Nguyen et al. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

                The full terms of this license are available at and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

                Original Research

                Respiratory medicine

                vietnam, body weight, copd, sgrq, protein intake, energy intake


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