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      Nonclonal Chromosome Aberrations and Genome Chaos in Somatic and Germ Cells from Patients and Survivors of Hodgkin Lymphoma

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          Abstract

          Anticancer regimens for Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) patients include highly genotoxic drugs that have been very successful in killing tumor cells and providing a 90% disease-free survival at five years. However, some of these treatments do not have a specific cell target, damaging both cancerous and normal cells. Thus, HL survivors have a high risk of developing new primary cancers, both hematologic and solid tumors, which have been related to treatment. Several studies have shown that after treatment, HL patients and survivors present persistent chromosomal instability, including nonclonal chromosomal aberrations. The frequency and type of chromosomal abnormalities appear to depend on the type of therapy and the cell type examined. For example, MOPP chemotherapy affects hematopoietic and germ stem cells leading to long-term genotoxic effects and azoospermia, while ABVD chemotherapy affects transiently sperm cells, with most of the patients showing recovery of spermatogenesis. Both regimens have long-term effects in somatic cells, presenting nonclonal chromosomal aberrations and genomic chaos in a fraction of noncancerous cells. This is a source of karyotypic heterogeneity that could eventually generate a more stable population acquiring clonal chromosomal aberrations and leading towards the development of a new cancer.

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          Most cited references 73

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          Chemotherapy of advanced Hodgkin's disease with MOPP, ABVD, or MOPP alternating with ABVD.

          MOPP (mechlorethamine, vincristine, procarbazine, and prednisone) has been the standard treatment for Hodgkin's disease for almost 20 years. In a randomized, multicenter trial, we compared three regimens of primary systemic therapy for newly diagnosed advanced Hodgkin's disease in Stages IIIA2, IIIB, and IVA or IVB: (1) MOPP alone given for 6 to 8 cycles, (2) MOPP alternating with ABVD (doxorubicin, bleomycin, vinblastine, and dacarbazine) for 12 cycles, and (3) ABVD alone for 6 to 8 cycles. Patients in a first relapse after radiation therapy were eligible. No additional radiation therapy was given. Patients who did not have a complete response or who had a relapse with either MOPP alone or ABVD alone were switched to the opposite regimen. Of 361 eligible patients, 123 received MOPP, 123 received MOPP alternating with ABVD, and 115 received ABVD alone. The patients were stratified according to age, stage, previous radiation, histologic features, and performance status. The overall response rate was 93 percent, with complete responses in 77 percent: 67 percent in the MOPP group, 82 percent in the ABVD group, and 83 percent in the MOPP-ABVD group (P = 0.006 for the comparison of MOPP with the other two regimens, both of which contained doxorubicin). The rates of failure-free survival at five years were 50 percent for MOPP, 61 percent for ABVD, and 65 percent for MOPP-ABVD. Age, stage (III vs. IV), and regimen influenced failure-free survival significantly. Overall survival at five years was 66 percent for MOPP, 73 percent for ABVD, and 75 percent for MOPP-ABVD (P = 0.28 for the comparison of MOPP with the doxorubicin regimens). MOPP had more severe toxic effects on bone marrow than ABVD and was associated with greater reductions in the prescribed dose. In this trial, ABVD therapy for 6 to 8 months was as effective as 12 months of MOPP alternating with ABVD, and both were superior to MOPP alone in the treatment of advanced Hodgkin's disease. ABVD was less myelotoxic than MOPP or ABVD alternating with MOPP.
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            Hodgkin lymphoma.

            Hodgkin lymphoma (HL), a B cell-derived cancer, is one of the most common lymphomas. In HL, the tumor cells--Hodgkin and Reed-Sternberg (HRS) cells--are usually very rare in the tissue. Although HRS cells are derived from mature B cells, they have largely lost their B cell phenotype and show a very unusual co-expression of markers of various hematopoietic cell types. HRS cells show deregulated activation of multiple signaling pathways and transcription factors. The activation of these pathways and factors is partly mediated through interactions of HRS cells with various other types of cells in the microenvironment, but also through genetic lesions. The transforming events involved in the pathogenesis of HL are only partly understood, but mutations affecting the NF-κB and JAK/STAT pathways are frequent. The dependency of HRS cells on microenvironmental interactions and deregulated signaling pathways may offer novel strategies for targeted therapies.
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              Chromosomal instability (CIN): what it is and why it is crucial to cancer evolution.

               K Ye,  Guo-Mu Liu,  H H Q Heng (2013)
              Results of various cancer genome sequencing projects have "unexpectedly" challenged the framework of the current somatic gene mutation theory of cancer. The prevalence of diverse genetic heterogeneity observed in cancer questions the strategy of focusing on contributions of individual gene mutations. Much of the genetic heterogeneity in tumors is due to chromosomal instability (CIN), a predominant hallmark of cancer. Multiple molecular mechanisms have been attributed to CIN but unifying these often conflicting mechanisms into one general mechanism has been challenging. In this review, we discuss multiple aspects of CIN including its definitions, methods of measuring, and some common misconceptions. We then apply the genome-based evolutionary theory to propose a general mechanism for CIN to unify the diverse molecular causes. In this new evolutionary framework, CIN represents a system behavior of a stress response with adaptive advantages but also serves as a new potential cause of further destabilization of the genome. Following a brief review about the newly realized functions of chromosomes that defines system inheritance and creates new genomes, we discuss the ultimate importance of CIN in cancer evolution. Finally, a number of confusing issues regarding CIN are explained in light of the evolutionary function of CIN.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Genes (Basel)
                Genes (Basel)
                genes
                Genes
                MDPI
                2073-4425
                10 January 2019
                January 2019
                : 10
                : 1
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Laboratorio de Citogenética, Instituto Nacional de Pediatría, Cd. De Mexico, P.O. Box 04530, Mexico; sera_ramos@ 123456yahoo.com.mx (S.R.); bertha_molina@ 123456yahoo.com.mx (B.M.); sanchezsilvia2000@ 123456yahoo.com.mx (S.S.)
                [2 ]Instituto de Investigaciones Biomédicas, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Mexico, Cd. De Mexico, P.O. Box 04510, Mexico
                [3 ]Laboratorio de Genética y Cáncer, Instituto Nacional de Pediatría, Cd. De Mexico, P.O. Box 04530, Mexico; consusa@ 123456hotmail.com
                [4 ]Subdirección de Hemato-Oncología, Instituto Nacional de Pediatría, Cd. De Mexico, P.O. Box 04530, Mexico; riveraluna@ 123456yahoo.com
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: sarafrias@ 123456biomedicas.unam.mx ; Tel.: +52-55-10840900 (ext. 1436)
                Article
                genes-10-00037
                10.3390/genes10010037
                6357137
                30634664
                © 2019 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

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