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      Novel peptide myristoly-CM4 induces selective cytotoxicity in leukemia K562/MDR and Jurkat cells by necrosis and/or apoptosis pathway

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          Purpose: There is an urgent need for the development of novel, effective, and less toxic drugs to treat leukemia. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have received much more attention as alternative chemotherapeutic agents. This study aimed to examined the cytotoxicity of a novel AMP myristoly-CM4 against chronic myeloid leukemia cells (K562/MDR) and acute lymphocytic leukemia cells (Jurkat), and further investigated its selectivity to clarify the cytotoxic mechanism.

          Materials and methods: In this study, the cytotoxicity and selectivity of myristoly-CM4 against K562/MDR and Jurkat cells were assessed in vitro, and the anticancer mechanism responsible for its cytotoxicity and selectivity was further investigated.

          Results: Myristoly-CM4 was cytotoxic to these leukemia cell lines (IC50 2–4 μM) and was less cytotoxic to normal cells (HEK-293, L02 cells, peripheral blood mononuclear cells, and erythrocytes). Myristoyl-CM4 had stronger affinity to K562/MDR and Jurkat cells than to normal cells, while the contents of phosphatidylserine and sialic acids on the cell surfaces of K562/MDR and Jurkat cells were significantly higher than that of HEK293 cells. The myristoyl group effectively mediated the internalization of myristoyl-CM4 to leukemia cells. After internalization, myristoyl-CM4 could target mitochondria and affected mitochondrial function, including disruption of Δψm, increasing the accumulation of ROS, increasing the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, activating caspase 9 and 3, and PARP to induce mitochondria-dependent apoptosis in both K562/MDR and Jurkat cells. Myristoyl-CM4 also induced K562/MDR cell necrosis by directive membrane disruption, and significantly decreased the level of P-glycoprotein in K562/MDR cells.

          Conclusion: These results suggested that myristoyl-CM4 showed selective cytotoxicity to leukemia K562/MDR and Jurkat cells by apoptosis and/or necrosis pathway. Myristoyl-CM4, thus, appears to be a promising candidate for leukemia treatment, including multidrug-resistant leukemia.

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          Most cited references 37

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          Arsenic trioxide - An old drug rediscovered.

          Over the last 17 years, clinical trials conducted worldwide have demonstrated the efficacy of arsenic trioxide (As(2)O(3)) in the treatment of relapsed acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). Currently, the role of As(2)O(3) in front-line therapy is under investigation. Recent trials in the US have demonstrated that the addition of As(2)O(3) to standard treatment regimens improves survival outcomes in patients with APL and may allow a reduction in cytotoxic chemotherapy exposure. As(2)O(3) has also shown efficacy in other malignancies, particularly multiple myeloma and myelodysplastic syndromes. Therapeutic doses of As(2)O(3) are well tolerated, with no evidence of long-term toxicity. Adverse events include APL differentiation syndrome, electrocardiographic abnormalities, and mild elevations in liver enzymes. This review highlights trials investigating the role of As(2)O(3) in induction and consolidation for newly diagnosed APL, as well as its role in other hematologic malignancies. The chemistry, mechanisms of action, and clinical side effects of As(2)O(3) are also discussed. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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            Fatty acylation of proteins: The long and the short of it.

             Marilyn Resh (2016)
            Long, short and medium chain fatty acids are covalently attached to hundreds of proteins. Each fatty acid confers distinct biochemical properties, enabling fatty acylation to regulate intracellular trafficking, subcellular localization, protein-protein and protein-lipid interactions. Myristate and palmitate represent the most common fatty acid modifying groups. New insights into how fatty acylation reactions are catalyzed, and how fatty acylation regulates protein structure and function continue to emerge. Myristate is typically linked to an N-terminal glycine, but recent studies reveal that lysines can also be myristoylated. Enzymes that remove N-terminal myristoyl-glycine or myristate from lysines have now been identified. DHHC proteins catalyze S-palmitoylation, but the mechanisms that regulate substrate recognition by individual DHHC family members remain to be determined. New studies continue to reveal thioesterases that remove palmitate from S-acylated proteins. Another area of rapid expansion is fatty acylation of the secreted proteins hedgehog, Wnt and Ghrelin, by Hhat, Porcupine and GOAT, respectively. Understanding how these membrane bound O-acyl transferases recognize their protein and fatty acyl CoA substrates is an active area of investigation, and is punctuated by the finding that these enzymes are potential drug targets in human diseases.
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              Post-translational myristoylation: Fat matters in cellular life and death.

              Myristoylation corresponds to the irreversible covalent linkage of the 14-carbon saturated fatty acid, myristic acid, to the N-terminal glycine of many eukaryotic and viral proteins. It is catalyzed by N-myristoyltransferase. Typically, the myristate moiety participates in protein subcellular localization by facilitating protein-membrane interactions as well as protein-protein interactions. Myristoylated proteins are crucial components of a wide variety of functions, which include many signalling pathways, oncogenesis or viral replication. Initially, myristoylation was described as a co-translational reaction that occurs after the removal of the initiator methionine residue. However, it is now well established that myristoylation can also occur post-translationally in apoptotic cells. Indeed, during apoptosis hundreds of proteins are cleaved by caspases and in many cases this cleavage exposes an N-terminal glycine within a cryptic myristoylation consensus sequence, which can be myristoylated. The principal objective of this review is to provide an overview on the implication of myristoylation in health and disease with a special emphasis on post-translational myristoylation. In addition, new advancements in the detection and identification of myristoylated proteins are also briefly reviewed. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

                Author and article information

                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                02 July 2019
                : 13
                : 2153-2167
                [1 ]Department of Biochemistry, Life Sciences College, Nanjing Normal University , Nanjing, People’s Republic of China
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Yuqing ChenDepartment of Biochemistry, Life Sciences College, Nanjing Normal University , 1 Wenyuan Rd, Nanjing, Jiangsu Province210000, People’s Republic of ChinaTel +861 364 519 7488Fax +860 258 622 7805Email yuqingchen515@ 123456yahoo.com

                These authors contributed equally to this work

                © 2019 Zhang et al.

                This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms ( https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php).

                Page count
                Figures: 6, References: 42, Pages: 15
                Original Research


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