Patients with analgesic nephropathy are reported to have a higher risk of atherosclerosis. One possible reason for this is a high incidence of hyperlipaemia in patients with analgesic nephropathy. In a retrospective study, serum cholesterol and serum triglyceride concentrations of patients with analgesic nephropathy and moderately restricted renal function were significantly higher compared to a control group with other renal diseases of similar age and degree of renal insufficiency. Hyperlipaemia in analgesic nephropathy is not explained by end-stage renal failure on one side or protein loss as in nephrotic syndrome on the other side. Some possible mechanisms for hyperlipaemia in analgesic nephropathy are discussed.