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      Long-Term Prognosis of Patients with Acute Coronary Syndrome and Moderate Coronary Artery Stenosis

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          Abstract

          We evaluated the clinical outcome and the prognostic factors at 6-year follow-up of patients with acute coronary syndrome without critical coronary arterial narrowing. The mean follow-up was 73 ± 19 months. Mortality rate was 13%, and 20 patients (12%) had major cardiac event, 8 patients (5%) had stroke and 10 patients (6%) underwent revascularization. Multivariate analysis matched for age and ejection factor showed that moderate disease (stenosis 40–59%) (OR = 2.713, p < 0.024) was an independent predictive factor of major cardiac event.

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          Clinical characteristics, aetiological factors and long-term prognosis of myocardial infarction with an absolutely normal coronary angiogram; a 3-year follow-up study of 91 patients.

          The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical outcome of a large cohort of patients who suffered an acute myocardial infarction with absolutely normal epicardial coronary arteries at the post-myocardial infarction coronary angiogram. The aetiological and prognostic factors in this population were also analysed. Few data exist concerning the outcome, and aetiological and prognostic factors, of patients with myocardial infarction and angiographically absolutely normal coronary arteries. Ninety-one patients (34 females/57 males; mean age 50+/-13 years, range 24--78 years) admitted with an acute myocardial infarction had absolutely normal coronary arteries at the angiogram performed 6.2+/-4 days (range 1--15 days) after the myocardial infarction, defined by smooth contours and no focal reduction (NC). Of the 91 NC patients, 71 were evaluated prospectively, alongside a systematic search of all aetiological factors reported in the literature. The NC patients were matched for age, sex, and the same period of myocardial infarction onset with a group of 91 patients with coronary artery stenosis (>50% diameter stenosis) at the angiogram performed 7.3+/-4 days (range 1--15 days) after the myocardial infarction (SC). The percent of smokers was similar between the two groups; higher prevalence rates of coronary heart disease family history, obesity, hypertension, hypercholesterolaemia and diabetes mellitus were found in SC (P=0.043 to 0.0001). In NC, coronary spasm was found in 15.5%, congenital coagulation disorders in 12.8%, collagen tissue disorders in 2.2%, embolization in 2.2%, and oral contraceptive use in 1.1%. Left ventricular ejection fraction at hospital discharge was higher in NC (60%+/-13%) than in SC (55%+/-13%, P=0.04). The mean follow-up was 35 months (range 1--100 months). Kaplan-Meier event-free survival, with the combined end-point defined as death, reinfarction, heart failure and stroke was 75% in NC vs 50% in SC (P<0.0001). Survival rate was 94.5% in NC compared to 92% in SC (ns). Univariate predictors of events in NC were left ventricular ejection fraction (P=0.03), age (P=0.02), diabetes (P=0.01), and smoking (P=0.03). Using Cox multivariate analysis, independent predictors of long-term outcome in NC patients were left ventricular ejection fraction (P=0.003) and diabetes (P=0.004). Aetiological factors, predominantly coronary spasm and inherited coagulation disorder, can be detected in only one third of the patients with myocardial infarction and absolutely normal coronary angiograms despite a systematic search in a prospective population. Mortality rates are similar but morbidity is lower in myocardial infarction patients with absolutely normal coronary angiography compared with those with coronary artery stenosis. The only two independent factors predictive of poor outcome in myocardial infarction patients with normal coronary arteries are left ventricular function and diabetes. Copyright 2001 The European Society of Cardiology.
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            Long-term prognosis of patients with anginalike chest pain and normal coronary angiographic findings.

            This study analyzes the long-term course of patients with typical angina pectoris or anginalike chest pain and normal coronary angiographic findings. In previous studies of such patients the rate of occurrence of typical coronary events during follow-up has differed widely, depending on the duration of the study and the number of patients. One hundred seventy-six patients (mean age 48.3 years) who underwent coronary and left ventricular angiography for typical angina or anginalike chest pain were followed up for 5.8 to 15.8 years (median 12.4). By definition, all patients had normal findings on coronary and left ventricular angiograms; exercise test results were positive in 31. Fourteen patients (8%) had a coronary event (0.65%/year) after an average of 9.3 years (median 9.2). Two of the 14 died of a coronary event (0.09%/year), 1 of cardiogenic shock during acute myocardial infarction, 1 suddenly; 4 had a nonfatal myocardial infarction at an average of 8.1 years (median 9.1); 8 had severe angina pectoris after an average of 10.3 years (median 11.1), confirmed by a second angiogram, now with positive findings. Two patients died of a noncoronary cardiac event (chronic cor pulmonale due to obstructive lung disease, acute pulmonary embolism), eight of a noncardiac cause, mainly cancer. None of the 31 patients with a positive exercise test result had a coronary event. Patients with a coronary event had significantly more risk factors (hypercholesterolemia, hypertension, cigarette smoking, diabetes type II) than did those without an event (average 2.4/patient vs. 1.3/patient, p < 0.01). Chest pain persisted in 133 (81%) of the 164 survivors and disappeared in 31 (19%). Patients with typical angina or anginalike chest pain and normal coronary angiograms have a good long-term prognosis despite persistence of pain for many years; coronary morbidity and mortality are similar to those of the overall population. An increased risk for the development of coronary events is present mainly in patients with elevated risk factors.
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              Author and article information

              Journal
              CRD
              Cardiology
              10.1159/issn.0008-6312
              Cardiology
              S. Karger AG
              0008-6312
              1421-9751
              2003
              April 2003
              25 April 2003
              : 99
              : 2
              : 90-95
              Affiliations
              Cardiology Department, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, Dijon, France
              Article
              69725 Cardiology 2003;99:90–95
              10.1159/000069725
              12711884
              © 2003 S. Karger AG, Basel

              Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

              Page count
              Figures: 1, Tables: 5, References: 20, Pages: 6
              Categories
              Coronary Care

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