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      Bipolar lophotrichous Helicobacter suis combine extended and wrapped flagella bundles to exhibit multiple modes of motility

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          Abstract

          The swimming strategies of unipolar flagellated bacteria are well known but little is known about how bipolar bacteria swim. Here we examine the motility of Helicobacter suis, a bipolar gastric-ulcer-causing bacterium that infects pigs and humans. Phase-contrast microscopy of unlabeled bacteria reveals flagella bundles in two conformations, extended away from the body (E) or flipped backwards and wrapped (W) around the body. We captured videos of the transition between these two states and observed three different swimming modes in broth: with one bundle rotating wrapped around the body and the other extended (EW), both extended (EE), and both wrapped (WW). Only EW and WW modes were seen in porcine gastric mucin. The EW mode displayed ballistic trajectories while the other two displayed superdiffusive random walk trajectories with slower swimming speeds. Separation into these two categories was also observed by tracking the mean square displacement of thousands of trajectories at lower magnification. Using the Method of Regularized Stokeslets we numerically calculate the swimming dynamics of these three different swimming modes and obtain good qualitative agreement with the measurements, including the decreased speed of the less frequent modes. Our results suggest that the extended bundle dominates the swimming dynamics.

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          Most cited references 33

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          Life at low Reynolds number

           E. Purcell (1977)
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            Chemotaxis in Escherichia coli analysed by Three-dimensional Tracking

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              The rotary motor of bacterial flagella.

               Jonathan Berg (2002)
              Flagellated bacteria, such as Escherichia coli, swim by rotating thin helical filaments, each driven at its base by a reversible rotary motor, powered by an ion flux. A motor is about 45 nm in diameter and is assembled from about 20 different kinds of parts. It develops maximum torque at stall but can spin several hundred Hz. Its direction of rotation is controlled by a sensory system that enables cells to accumulate in regions deemed more favorable. We know a great deal about motor structure, genetics, assembly, and function, but we do not really understand how it works. We need more crystal structures. All of this is reviewed, but the emphasis is on function.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                rb@bu.edu
                Journal
                Sci Rep
                Sci Rep
                Scientific Reports
                Nature Publishing Group UK (London )
                2045-2322
                26 September 2018
                26 September 2018
                2018
                : 8
                Affiliations
                [1 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1936 7558, GRID grid.189504.1, Boston University, ; Boston, MA 02215 USA
                [2 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2193 0096, GRID grid.223827.e, University of Utah, ; Salt Lake City, Utah USA
                [3 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2341 2786, GRID grid.116068.8, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, ; Cambridge, MA 02138 USA
                [4 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2069 7798, GRID grid.5342.0, Ghent University, ; Ghent, Belgium
                [5 ]ISNI 0000 0000 9919 9582, GRID grid.8761.8, University of Gothenburg, ; Gothenburg, Sweden
                Article
                32686
                10.1038/s41598-018-32686-7
                6158295
                30258065
                © The Author(s) 2018

                Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

                Funding
                Funded by: FundRef https://doi.org/10.13039/100000146, NSF | ENG | Division of Chemical, Bioengineering, Environmental, and Transport Systems (CBET);
                Award ID: CBET 1651031
                Award Recipient :
                Funded by: FundRef https://doi.org/10.13039/100000054, U.S. Department of Health & Human Services | NIH | National Cancer Institute (NCI);
                Award ID: NCI PO1CA028842
                Award Recipient :
                Funded by: FundRef https://doi.org/10.13039/100000066, U.S. Department of Health & Human Services | NIH | National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS);
                Award ID: NIEHS P30ES002109
                Award Recipient :
                Funded by: Research Fund of Ghent University, Belgium 01G01014
                Funded by: FundRef https://doi.org/10.13039/100000166, NSF | Directorate for Mathematical & Physical Sciences | Division of Physics (PHY);
                Award ID: NSF PHY 1410798
                Award Recipient :
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