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      Successful Resection of a Giant Pulmonary Colloid Adenocarcinoma via Median Sternotomy

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          Abstract

          We report on a giant pulmonary colloid adenocarcinoma successfully resected using a median sternotomy approach. A 69-year-old woman visited our hospital owing to a giant mass detected on chest radiography. A giant cystic mass measuring 115 × 90 mm was detected in the right upper lung using computed tomography. We suspected mucinous adenocarcinoma and performed right upper lobectomy and mediastinal lymph node dissection with median sternotomy. The surgical field of view for the tumor and superior vena cava was satisfactory, and compression but not invasion of the superior vena cava and chest wall by the tumor was observed. The tumor was pathologically diagnosed as a colloid adenocarcinoma of stage IIIA with pT4N0M0. The postoperative course was uneventful, with no signs of recurrence at one and a half years after operation. Thus, this case demonstrates that for giant lung tumor surgery, median sternotomy is useful and safe for improving the surgical field of view.

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          Most cited references 16

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          International association for the study of lung cancer/american thoracic society/european respiratory society international multidisciplinary classification of lung adenocarcinoma.

          Adenocarcinoma is the most common histologic type of lung cancer. To address advances in oncology, molecular biology, pathology, radiology, and surgery of lung adenocarcinoma, an international multidisciplinary classification was sponsored by the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer, American Thoracic Society, and European Respiratory Society. This new adenocarcinoma classification is needed to provide uniform terminology and diagnostic criteria, especially for bronchioloalveolar carcinoma (BAC), the overall approach to small nonresection cancer specimens, and for multidisciplinary strategic management of tissue for molecular and immunohistochemical studies. An international core panel of experts representing all three societies was formed with oncologists/pulmonologists, pathologists, radiologists, molecular biologists, and thoracic surgeons. A systematic review was performed under the guidance of the American Thoracic Society Documents Development and Implementation Committee. The search strategy identified 11,368 citations of which 312 articles met specified eligibility criteria and were retrieved for full text review. A series of meetings were held to discuss the development of the new classification, to develop the recommendations, and to write the current document. Recommendations for key questions were graded by strength and quality of the evidence according to the Grades of Recommendation, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation approach. The classification addresses both resection specimens, and small biopsies and cytology. The terms BAC and mixed subtype adenocarcinoma are no longer used. For resection specimens, new concepts are introduced such as adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS) and minimally invasive adenocarcinoma (MIA) for small solitary adenocarcinomas with either pure lepidic growth (AIS) or predominant lepidic growth with ≤ 5 mm invasion (MIA) to define patients who, if they undergo complete resection, will have 100% or near 100% disease-specific survival, respectively. AIS and MIA are usually nonmucinous but rarely may be mucinous. Invasive adenocarcinomas are classified by predominant pattern after using comprehensive histologic subtyping with lepidic (formerly most mixed subtype tumors with nonmucinous BAC), acinar, papillary, and solid patterns; micropapillary is added as a new histologic subtype. Variants include invasive mucinous adenocarcinoma (formerly mucinous BAC), colloid, fetal, and enteric adenocarcinoma. This classification provides guidance for small biopsies and cytology specimens, as approximately 70% of lung cancers are diagnosed in such samples. Non-small cell lung carcinomas (NSCLCs), in patients with advanced-stage disease, are to be classified into more specific types such as adenocarcinoma or squamous cell carcinoma, whenever possible for several reasons: (1) adenocarcinoma or NSCLC not otherwise specified should be tested for epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations as the presence of these mutations is predictive of responsiveness to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors, (2) adenocarcinoma histology is a strong predictor for improved outcome with pemetrexed therapy compared with squamous cell carcinoma, and (3) potential life-threatening hemorrhage may occur in patients with squamous cell carcinoma who receive bevacizumab. If the tumor cannot be classified based on light microscopy alone, special studies such as immunohistochemistry and/or mucin stains should be applied to classify the tumor further. Use of the term NSCLC not otherwise specified should be minimized. This new classification strategy is based on a multidisciplinary approach to diagnosis of lung adenocarcinoma that incorporates clinical, molecular, radiologic, and surgical issues, but it is primarily based on histology. This classification is intended to support clinical practice, and research investigation and clinical trials. As EGFR mutation is a validated predictive marker for response and progression-free survival with EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors in advanced lung adenocarcinoma, we recommend that patients with advanced adenocarcinomas be tested for EGFR mutation. This has implications for strategic management of tissue, particularly for small biopsies and cytology samples, to maximize high-quality tissue available for molecular studies. Potential impact for tumor, node, and metastasis staging include adjustment of the size T factor according to only the invasive component (1) pathologically in invasive tumors with lepidic areas or (2) radiologically by measuring the solid component of part-solid nodules.
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            Primary mucinous (so-called colloid) carcinomas of the lung: a clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study with special reference to CDX-2 homeobox gene and MUC2 expression.

            Herein we describe the clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical features of 13 primary mucinous (colloid) carcinomas (MCs) of the lung, an uncommon and controversial tumor. The patients, 7 males and 6 females, ranged in age from 50 to 79 years (mean, 64.5 years). All the tumors presented as a peripheral solitary nodule with gelatinous cut-surface and well circumscribed but lacking a complete fibrous wall. The size ranged from 1 to 5.5 cm. Microscopically, they consisted of neoplastic elements floating in large mucin pools and focally lining the alveolar spaces. Eleven cases were predominantly composed of tall, columnar goblet cells (goblet cell-type MC), while 2 consisted of signet-ring tumor cells (signet-ring cell-type MC). Five tumors were incidentally discovered by chest radiographs, while the others were symptomatic. All patients underwent complete surgical resection (six lobectomies and seven wedge resections). Postoperative chemotherapy was performed in 3 cases. Overall, the median follow-up was 26 months (mean 33 months; range 9-95 months). All patients with goblet cell-type MC were alive and well, while the 2 patients with signet-ring cell-type MC died of disease. Immunohistochemically, all the 11 goblet cell-type MCs were strongly stained with CDX-2 and MUC2, 8 reacted with TTF-1, 6 with cytokeratin 20 (CK20), 9 with cytokeratin 7 (CK7), and 2 with MUC-5AC. Conversely, the two signet-ring cell-type MCs were stained with TTF-1, CK7, and MUC5AC but were negative for CDX-2, MUC2, and CK20. Surfactant apoprotein-A (SP-A) was positive in four goblet cell-type and one signet-ring cell-type MC. When compared with 10 mucinous bronchioloalveolar carcinomas (m-BAC), the latter reacted with CK7, CK20, MUC5AC, TTF-1, SP-A, CDX-2, and MUC2 in 100%, 90%, 100%, 30%, 10%, 0%, and 0% of the cases, respectively. In summary, MC of the lung represents an entity with two distinct clinicopathologic and immunophenotypic variants: 1) the goblet cell-type, presenting a more indolent clinical behavior and frequently co-expressing markers of intestinal and pulmonary differentiation; and 2) the more aggressive signet-ring cell-type, which retains only markers of pulmonary origin. On morphologic and immunohistochemical grounds, MCs are easily distinguishable from m-BAC. Since goblet cell-type MC strongly stains with CDX2, MUC2, and CK20, differential diagnosis with metastatic colorectal carcinoma is very challenging and requires appropriate clinical correlation.
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              Colloid Adenocarcinoma of the Lung: CT and PET/CT Findings in Seven Patients.

              We aimed to assess CT and 18F-FDG PET/CT findings of colloid adenocarcinoma of the lung in seven patients.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                CRO
                CRO
                10.1159/issn.1662-6575
                Case Reports in Ophthalmology
                S. Karger AG
                1662-6575
                2020
                September - December 2020
                18 September 2020
                : 13
                : 3
                : 1097-1102
                Affiliations
                aDepartment of Thoracic Surgery, National Hospital Organization Matsumoto Medical Center, Nagano, Japan
                bDepartment of Diagnostic Pathology, National Hospital Organization Matsumoto Medical Center, Nagano, Japan
                Author notes
                *Daisuke Nakamura, Department of Thoracic Surgery, National Hospital Organization Matsumoto Medical Center, 2-20-30 Murai-Machi-Minami, Matsumoto, Nagano 399-0021 (Japan), shu0222@shinshu-u.ac.jp
                Article
                509999 PMC7548848 Case Rep Oncol 2020;13:1097–1102
                10.1159/000509999
                PMC7548848
                33082754
                © 2020 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel

                This article is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License (CC BY-NC). Usage and distribution for commercial purposes requires written permission. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 3, Pages: 6
                Categories
                Case Report

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