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      Pediatric Trainees Managing a Difficult Airway: Comparison of Laryngeal Mask Airway, Direct, and Video-Assisted Laryngoscopy

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      SAGE Publications

      difficult airway, video-assisted laryngoscopy, medical education, simulation, laryngeal mask airway, direct laryngoscopy

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          Abstract

          Objective Difficult airway management is a key skill required by all pediatric physicians, yet training on multiple modalities is lacking. The objective of this study was to compare the rate of, and time to, successful advanced infant airway placement with direct laryngoscopy, video-assisted laryngoscopy, and laryngeal mask airway (LMA) in a difficult airway simulator. This study is the first to compare the success with 3 methods for difficult airway management among pediatric trainees. Study Design Randomized crossover pilot study. Setting Tertiary academic medical center. Methods Twenty-two pediatric residents, interns, and medical students were tested. Participants were provided 1 training session by faculty using a normal infant manikin. Subjects then performed all 3 of the aforementioned advanced airway modalities in a randomized order on a difficult airway model of a Robin sequence. Success was defined as confirmed endotracheal intubation or correct LMA placement by the testing instructor in ≤120 seconds. Results Direct laryngoscopy demonstrated a significantly higher placement success rate (77.3%) than video-assisted laryngoscopy (36.4%, P = .0117) and LMA (31.8%, P = .0039). Video-assisted laryngoscopy required a significantly longer amount of time during successful intubations (84.8 seconds; 95% CI, 59.4-110.1) versus direct laryngoscopy (44.9 seconds; 95% CI, 33.8-55.9) and LMA placement (36.6 seconds; 95% CI, 24.7-48.4). Conclusions Pediatric trainees demonstrated significantly higher success using direct laryngoscopy in a difficult airway simulator model. However, given the potential lifesaving implications of advanced airway adjuncts, including video-assisted laryngoscopy and LMA placement, more extensive training on adjunctive airway management techniques may be useful for trainees.

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          Most cited references 17

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          Endotracheal intubation attempts during neonatal resuscitation: success rates, duration, and adverse effects.

          Endotracheal intubation of newborn infants is a mandatory competence for many pediatric trainees. The Neonatal Resuscitation Program recommends a 20-second limit for intubation attempts. Intubation attempts by junior doctors are frequently unsuccessful, and many infants are intubated between 20 and 30 seconds without apparent adverse effect. Little is known about the proficiency of more senior medical staff, the time taken to determine endotracheal tube (ETT) position, or the effects of attempted intubation on infants' heart rate (HR) and oxygen saturation (Spo2) in the delivery room (DR). The objectives of this study were to determine (1) the success rates and duration of intubation attempts during DR resuscitation, (2) whether experience is associated with greater success rates and shorter time taken to intubate, (3) the time taken to identify ETT position after intubation, and (4) the frequency with which infants deteriorated during intubation attempts and the time at which this occurred. We reviewed videos of DR resuscitations; identified whether intubation was attempted; and, when attempted, whether intubation was attempted by a resident, a fellow, or a consultant. We defined the duration of an intubation attempt as the time from the introduction of the laryngoscope blade to the mouth to its removal, regardless of whether an ETT was introduced. We determined the time from removal of the laryngoscope to the clinicians' decision as to whether the intubation was successful and noted the basis on which this decision was made (clinical assessment, flow signals, or exhaled carbon dioxide [ETCO2] detection). We determined success according to clinical signs in all cases and used flow signals that were obtained during ventilation via the ETT or ETCO2 when available. When neither was available, the chest radiograph on admission to the NICU was reviewed. For infants who were monitored with pulse oximetry, we determined their HR and Spo2 before the intubation attempt. We then determined whether either or both fell by > or =10% during the attempt and, if so, at what time it occurred. We reviewed 122 video recordings in which orotracheal intubation was attempted 60 times in 31 infants. We secondarily verified ETT position using flow signals, ETCO2, or chest radiographs after 94% of attempts in which an ETT was introduced. Thirty-seven (62%) attempts were successful. Success rates and mean (SD) time to intubate successfully by group were as follows: residents: 24%, 49 seconds (13 seconds); fellows: 78%, 32 seconds (13 seconds); and consultants: 86%, 25 seconds (17 seconds). Of the 23 unsuccessful attempts, 13 were abandoned without an attempt to pass an ETT and 10 were placed incorrectly. The time to determine ETT position in the DR was longer when clinical assessment alone was used. Infants who were monitored with oximetry deteriorated during nearly half of the intubation attempts. Deterioration seemed more likely when HR and Spo2 were low before the attempt. Intubation attempts often are unsuccessful, and successful attempts frequently take >30 seconds. Greater experience is associated with greater success rates and shorter duration of successful attempts. Flow signals and ETCO2 may be useful in determining ETT position more quickly than clinical assessment alone. Infants frequently deteriorate during intubation attempts. Improved monitoring of infants who are resuscitated in the DR is desirable.
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            Proposal for the management of the unexpected difficult pediatric airway.

            The incidence of unanticipated difficult or failed airway in otherwise healthy children is rare, and routine airway management in pediatric patients is easy in experienced hands. However, difficulties with airway management in healthy children are not infrequent in nonpediatric anesthetists and are a main reason for pediatric anesthesia-related morbidity and mortality. Clear concepts and strategies are, therefore, required to maintain oxygenation and ventilation in children. Several complicated algorithms for the management of the unanticipated difficult adult and pediatric airway have been proposed, but a simple structured algorithm for the pediatric patient with unanticipated difficult airway is missing. This paper proposes a simple step-wise algorithm for the unexpected difficult pediatric airway based on an adult Difficult Airway Society (DAS) protocol, discusses the role of recently introduced airway devices, and suggests a content of a pediatric airway trolley. It is intended as an easy to memorize and a practical guide for the anesthetist only occasionally involved in pediatric anesthesia care as well as a call to stimulate discussion about the management of the unanticipated difficult pediatric airway.
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              Duration of intubation attempts during neonatal resuscitation.

              Since the American Academy of Pediatrics Neonatal Resuscitation Program recommends that intubation should be completed in approximately 20 seconds, we measured the duration of neonatal intubation attempts by different operators, using video recordings of neonatal resuscitations.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                10.1177/2473974X17707916
                6239019

                http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/

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