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      Hesperomyces virescens (Fungi, Ascomycota, Laboulbeniales) attacking Harmonia axyridis (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae) in its native range

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          Avian extinction and mammalian introductions on oceanic islands.

          The arrival of humans on oceanic islands has precipitated a wave of extinctions among the islands' native birds. Nevertheless, the magnitude of this extinction event varies markedly between avifaunas. We show that the probability that a bird species has been extirpated from each of 220 oceanic islands is positively correlated with the number of exotic predatory mammal species established on those islands after European colonization and that the effect of these predators is greater on island endemic species. In contrast, the proportions of currently threatened species are independent of the numbers of exotic mammalian predator species, suggesting that the principal threat to island birds has changed through time as species susceptible to exotic predators have been driven extinct.
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            Impacts of alien plant invasions on species richness in Mediterranean-type ecosystems: a meta-analysis

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              Phylogeny of ladybirds (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae): are the subfamilies monophyletic?

              The Coccinellidae (ladybirds) is a highly speciose family of the Coleoptera. Ladybirds are well known because of their use as biocontrol agents, and are the subject of many ecological studies. However, little is known about phylogenetic relationships of the Coccinellidae, and a precise evolutionary framework is needed for the family. This paper provides the first phylogenetic reconstruction of the relationships within the Coccinellidae based on analysis of five genes: the 18S and 28S rRNA nuclear genes and the mitochondrial 12S, 16S rRNA and cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) genes. The phylogenetic relationships of 67 terminal taxa, representative of all the subfamilies of the Coccinellidae (61 species, 37 genera), and relevant outgroups, were reconstructed using multiple approaches, including Bayesian inference with partitioning strategies. The recovered phylogenies are congruent and show that the Coccinellinae is monophyletic but the Coccidulinae, Epilachninae, Scymninae and Chilocorinae are paraphyletic. The tribe Chilocorini is identified as the sister-group of the Coccinellinae for the first time.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Chinese Science Bulletin
                Chin. Sci. Bull.
                Springer Nature
                1001-6538
                1861-9541
                February 2014
                January 2014
                : 59
                : 5-6
                : 528-532
                Article
                10.1007/s11434-013-0060-1
                4690c9b8-b2c2-42e2-ae4d-7dde9b5b0f26
                © 2014
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