We re-examined the taxonomic status of plants treated as Sedum formosanum ( Crassulaceae ) from Miyako-jima Island of the Ryukyu Islands, Japan, using morphological comparison and molecular phylogenetic analyses with related species. In morphology, plants from Miyako-jima Island bore a close resemblance to the other plants of S. formosanum , but differed in being perennial, polycarpic, and having lateral axillary branches. Molecular analyses based on ITS of nrDNA and six regions of cpDNA sequencing indicated that the Miyako-jima plants formed a distinct subclade. This subclade was part of a polytomy with three other subclades comprising nine taxa endemic to Taiwan and S. formosanum from other areas, including the type locality. Therefore, we propose and describe the Miyako-jima plants as a new subspecies, Sedum formosanum subsp. miyakojimense .