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      LncRNA HOTAIR promotes proliferation and inhibits apoptosis by sponging miR-214-3p in HPV16 positive cervical cancer cells

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          Abstract

          Background

          Cervical cancer (CC) is one of the most common gynaecological malignancies all around the world. The mechanisms of cervical carcinoma formation remain under close scrutiny. The long non-coding RNAs (lncRNA) and microRNAs (miRNAs) play important roles in controlling gene expression and promoting the development and progression of cervical cancer by acting as competitive endogenous RNA (ceRNA). However, the roles of lncRNA associated with ceRNAs in cervical carcinogenesis remains unknown. In this study, the expression of long non-coding RNA HOTAIR was investigated in HPV16 positive cervical cancer cells, the candidate miRNAs and target genes were identified to clarify putative ceRNAs of HOTAIR/miRNA in cervical cancer cells.

          Methods

          The proliferation ability of cells was measured by CCK8 and EdU incorporation assays and cell apoptosis was analyzed by flow cytometry. The expression of HOTAIR, miR-214-3p, HPV16 E7 mRNA were detected by qRT-PCR. As for searching for the interaction between miR-214-3p and HOTAIR, the binding sites for miR-214-3p on HOTAIR was predicted by starbase v2.0 database, then dual-luciferase assay was used to verify the binding sites. In addition, Gene Ontology (GO) and protein–protein interaction (PPI) network analysis of target genes of miR-214-3p were performed with bioinformatics analysis. The potential signal pathway regulated by HOTAIR/miR-214-3p was predicted by KEGG enrichment analysis and confirmed by qPCR and WB analysis in cervical cancer cells.

          Results

          Our results showed that expression of HOTAIR was up-regulated, while that of miR-214-3p was down-regulated in HPV16-positive cervical cancer cells. The expression status of HPV16 E7 played an important role in regulating expression of HOTAIR or miR-214-3p in cervical cancer cells. HOTAIR knockdown could significantly inhibited cell proliferate ability and promote cellular apoptosis, whereas the inhibition of miR-214-3p expression partially reversed such results. Bioinformatics analysis identified 1451 genes as target genes of miR-214-3p. The Gene ontology (GO) and KEGG Pathway enrichment analysis showed that these target genes were mainly related to regulation of cell communication, protein binding, enzyme binding and transferase activity, and Wnt ligand biogenesis. Pathway enrichment analysis results showed that the predicted target genes were significantly enriched in Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. Finally, our results confirmed that miR-214-3p could significantly inhibit β-catenin expression in HPV16 positive cancer cells by qPCR and WB analysis.

          Conclusion

          HOTAIR could act as a ceRNA through binding to miR-214-3p, promote cell proliferation and inhibit the apoptosis of HPV16 positive cervical cancer. HOTAIR/miR-214-3p/Wnt/β-catenin signal pathway might played important regulated roles in HPV16 positive cervical cancer. Our results provided new insight into defining novel biomarkers for cervical cancer.

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          Most cited references51

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          Global cancer statistics 2020: GLOBOCAN estimates of incidence and mortality worldwide for 36 cancers in 185 countries

          This article provides an update on the global cancer burden using the GLOBOCAN 2020 estimates of cancer incidence and mortality produced by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. Worldwide, an estimated 19.3 million new cancer cases (18.1 million excluding nonmelanoma skin cancer) and almost 10.0 million cancer deaths (9.9 million excluding nonmelanoma skin cancer) occurred in 2020. Female breast cancer has surpassed lung cancer as the most commonly diagnosed cancer, with an estimated 2.3 million new cases (11.7%), followed by lung (11.4%), colorectal (10.0 %), prostate (7.3%), and stomach (5.6%) cancers. Lung cancer remained the leading cause of cancer death, with an estimated 1.8 million deaths (18%), followed by colorectal (9.4%), liver (8.3%), stomach (7.7%), and female breast (6.9%) cancers. Overall incidence was from 2-fold to 3-fold higher in transitioned versus transitioning countries for both sexes, whereas mortality varied <2-fold for men and little for women. Death rates for female breast and cervical cancers, however, were considerably higher in transitioning versus transitioned countries (15.0 vs 12.8 per 100,000 and 12.4 vs 5.2 per 100,000, respectively). The global cancer burden is expected to be 28.4 million cases in 2040, a 47% rise from 2020, with a larger increase in transitioning (64% to 95%) versus transitioned (32% to 56%) countries due to demographic changes, although this may be further exacerbated by increasing risk factors associated with globalization and a growing economy. Efforts to build a sustainable infrastructure for the dissemination of cancer prevention measures and provision of cancer care in transitioning countries is critical for global cancer control.
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            miRWalk: An online resource for prediction of microRNA binding sites

            miRWalk is an open-source platform providing an intuitive interface that generates predicted and validated miRNA-binding sites of known genes of human, mouse, rat, dog and cow. The core of miRWalk is the miRNA target site prediction with the random-forest-based approach software TarPmiR searching the complete transcript sequence including the 5’-UTR, CDS and 3’-UTR. Moreover, it integrates results other databases with predicted and validated miRNA-target interactions. The focus is set on a modular design and extensibility as well as a fast update cycle. The database is available using Python, MySQL and HTML/Javascript Database URL: http://mirwalk.umm.uni-heidelberg.de.
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              Targeting the Wnt/beta-catenin pathway in cancer: Update on effectors and inhibitors.

              The Wnt/beta-catenin pathway is a family of proteins that is implicated in many vital cellular functions such as stem cell regeneration and organogenesis. Several intra-cellular signal transduction pathways are induced by Wnt, notably the Wnt/beta-catenin dependent pathway or canonical pathway and the non-canonical or beta-catenin-independent pathway; the latter includes the Wnt/Ca2+ and Planar Cell Polarity pathway (PCP). Wnt activation occurs at the intestinal crypt floor, and is critical to optimal maintenance of stem cells. Colorectal cancers show evidence of Wnt signaling pathway activation and this is associated with loss of function of the tumor regulator APC. Wnt activation has been observed in breast, lung, and hematopoietic malignancies and contributes to tumor recurrence. The Wnt pathway cross talks with the Notch and Sonic Hedgehog pathways, which has implications for therapeutic interventions in cancers. There are significant challenges in targeting the Wnt pathway, including finding agents that are efficacious without damaging the system of normal somatic stem cell function in cellular repair and tissue homeostasis. Here, we comprehensively review the Wnt pathway and its interactions with the Notch and Sonic Hedgehog pathways. We present the state of the field in effectors and inhibitors of Wnt signaling, including updates on clinical trials in various cancers with inhibitors of Wnt, Notch, and Sonic Hedgehog.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                minzhao@whu.edu.cn
                Journal
                Cancer Cell Int
                Cancer Cell Int
                Cancer Cell International
                BioMed Central (London )
                1475-2867
                28 July 2021
                28 July 2021
                2021
                : 21
                : 400
                Affiliations
                [1 ]GRID grid.49470.3e, ISNI 0000 0001 2331 6153, School of Basic Medical Sciences, , Wuhan University, ; Wuhan, Hubei 430071 People’s Republic of China
                [2 ]GRID grid.413247.7, Department of Cardiology, , Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, ; Wuhan, Hubei 430071 People’s Republic of China
                [3 ]GRID grid.49470.3e, ISNI 0000 0001 2331 6153, Demonstration Center for Experimental Basic Medicine Education, , Wuhan University, ; Wuhan, Hubei 430071 People’s Republic of China
                Author information
                http://orcid.org/0000-0001-9207-4629
                Article
                2103
                10.1186/s12935-021-02103-7
                8317292
                34320988
                478d8021-c595-4ea0-8e7f-24ba9c19dcb5
                © The Author(s) 2021

                Open AccessThis article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated in a credit line to the data.

                History
                : 7 March 2021
                : 19 July 2021
                Categories
                Primary Research
                Custom metadata
                © The Author(s) 2021

                Oncology & Radiotherapy
                cervical cancer,hpv16 e7,hotair,mir-214-3p,cerna
                Oncology & Radiotherapy
                cervical cancer, hpv16 e7, hotair, mir-214-3p, cerna

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