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      Genetic Dissection of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Signaling during Luteinizing Hormone-Induced Oocyte Maturation

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          Abstract

          Recent evidence that luteinizing hormone (LH) stimulation of ovulatory follicles causes transactivation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) has provided insights into the mechanisms of ovulation. However, the complete array of signals that promote oocyte reentry into the meiotic cell cycle in the follicle are still incompletely understood. To elucidate the signaling downstream of EGFR involved in oocyte maturation, we have investigated the LH responses in granulosa cells with targeted ablation of EGFR. Oocyte maturation and ovulation is disrupted when EGFR expression is progressively reduced. In granulosa cells from mice with either global or granulosa cell-specific disruption of EGFR signaling, LH-induced phosphorylation of MAPK3/1, p38MAPK, and connexin-43 is impaired. Although the LH-induced decrease in cGMP is EGFR-dependent in wild type follicles, LH still induces a decrease in cGMP in Egfr delta/f Cyp19-Cre follicles. Thus compensatory mechanisms appear activated in the mutant. Spatial propagation of the LH signal in the follicle also is dependent on the EGF network, and likely is important for the control of signaling to the oocyte. Thus, multiple signals and redundant pathways contribute to regulating oocyte reentry into the cell cycle.

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          Most cited references 45

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          EGF-like growth factors as mediators of LH action in the ovulatory follicle.

           Mark Law,  Nam Park,  Lu Su (2004)
          Before ovulation in mammals, a cascade of events resembling an inflammatory and/or tissue remodeling process is triggered by luteinizing hormone (LH) in the ovarian follicle. Many LH effects, however, are thought to be indirect because of the restricted expression of its receptor. Here, we demonstrate that LH stimulation induces the transient and sequential expression of the epidermal growth factor (EGF) family members amphiregulin, epiregulin, and beta-cellulin. Incubation of follicles with these growth factors recapitulates the morphological and biochemical events triggered by LH, including cumulus expansion and oocyte maturation. Thus, these EGF-related growth factors are paracrine mediators that propagate the LH signal throughout the follicle.
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            MAPK3/1 (ERK1/2) in ovarian granulosa cells are essential for female fertility.

            A surge of luteinizing hormone (LH) from the pituitary gland triggers ovulation, oocyte maturation, and luteinization for successful reproduction in mammals. Because the signaling molecules RAS and ERK1/2 (extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2) are activated by an LH surge in granulosa cells of preovulatory follicles, we disrupted Erk1/2 in mouse granulosa cells and provide in vivo evidence that these kinases are necessary for LH-induced oocyte resumption of meiosis, ovulation, and luteinization. In addition, biochemical analyses and selected disruption of the Cebpb gene in granulosa cells demonstrate that C/EBPbeta (CCAAT/Enhancer-binding protein-beta) is a critical downstream mediator of ERK1/2 activation. Thus, ERK1/2 and C/EBPbeta constitute an in vivo LH-regulated signaling pathway that controls ovulation- and luteinization-related events.
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              ErbB receptors: directing key signaling networks throughout life.

              The epidermal growth factor (EGF)-related peptides bind the ErbB receptors, inducing the formation of different homo- and heterodimers. Receptor dimerization promotes activation of the intrinsic kinase, leading to phosphorylation of specific tyrosines located in the ErbB's cytoplasmic region. These phosphorylated residues serve as docking sites for a variety of signaling molecules whose recruitment stimulates intracellular signaling cascades, which ultimately control diverse genetic programs. Particular ligand-receptor complexes have essential roles in embryonic development as well as in the adult. Finally, ErbB receptors are being pursued as therapeutic targets because aberrant ErbB activity has been observed in many human cancers. In this review, we discuss these data in more detail, illustrating the importance of tightly regulated ErbB signaling throughout life.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: Editor
                Journal
                PLoS One
                plos
                plosone
                PLoS ONE
                Public Library of Science (San Francisco, USA )
                1932-6203
                2011
                30 June 2011
                : 6
                : 6
                Affiliations
                Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology & Reproductive Sciences, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States of America
                Universitat de Barcelona, Spain
                Author notes

                Conceived and designed the experiments: MH MC. Performed the experiments: MH KT. Analyzed the data: MH KT MC. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: MH. Wrote the paper: MH MC.

                Article
                PONE-D-11-05513
                10.1371/journal.pone.0021574
                3128061
                21738714
                Hsieh et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
                Page count
                Pages: 14
                Categories
                Research Article
                Biology
                Anatomy and Physiology
                Endocrine System
                Endocrine Physiology
                Reproductive Endocrinology
                Reproductive System
                Reproductive Physiology
                Developmental Biology

                Uncategorized

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