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      Comparing the First and Second Wave of COVID-19 in Kidney Transplant Recipients: An East-European Perspective


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          The present study examined whether patient characteristics, management, and outcome of kidney transplant recipients (KTx) with COVID-19 changed in the second versus the first pandemic wave.


          We reviewed all available data (demographics, medical history, comorbidities, therapeutic interventions, and outcome) on our KTx with COVID-19 during the first wave (March–September 2020, n = 33) and the second wave (October 2020–February 2021, n = 149) of the COVID-19 pandemic.


          One hundred eighty-two out of our 1,503 KTx in active follow-up got COVID-19 during 12-month period, corresponding to a prevalence of 12.1%. No difference was found in age, gender distribution, comorbidities, body mass index, or baseline immunosuppression between the 2 COVID-19 waves. Bilateral COVID pneumonia was more frequent during the first wave. More KTx were managed as outpatients during the second wave (15 vs. 39%, p < 0.01). Calcineurin inhibitors were more sparingly reduced during the second wave, whereas antimetabolites were similarly reduced (91 vs. 86, p = ns). Admission to intensive care units was comparable between the first (27%) and second waves (23%). During the first wave, 8 out of 9 patients (89%) requiring intensive care died, whereas the mortality of the ICU patients in the second wave was 68% (23 deaths) ( p = 0.2). The overall mortality was 24% during the first wave and 16% during the second wave ( p = 0.21), while in-hospital mortality was identical between the CO­VID-19 waves (27%). Increasing age and poor allograft function were significant predictors of mortality.


          Most patient characteristics and outcome were comparable between the first 2 COVID-19 waves. More KTx were managed as outpatients without an overall negative impact on outcome.

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          Most cited references50

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          Clinical course and risk factors for mortality of adult inpatients with COVID-19 in Wuhan, China: a retrospective cohort study

          Summary Background Since December, 2019, Wuhan, China, has experienced an outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Epidemiological and clinical characteristics of patients with COVID-19 have been reported but risk factors for mortality and a detailed clinical course of illness, including viral shedding, have not been well described. Methods In this retrospective, multicentre cohort study, we included all adult inpatients (≥18 years old) with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 from Jinyintan Hospital and Wuhan Pulmonary Hospital (Wuhan, China) who had been discharged or had died by Jan 31, 2020. Demographic, clinical, treatment, and laboratory data, including serial samples for viral RNA detection, were extracted from electronic medical records and compared between survivors and non-survivors. We used univariable and multivariable logistic regression methods to explore the risk factors associated with in-hospital death. Findings 191 patients (135 from Jinyintan Hospital and 56 from Wuhan Pulmonary Hospital) were included in this study, of whom 137 were discharged and 54 died in hospital. 91 (48%) patients had a comorbidity, with hypertension being the most common (58 [30%] patients), followed by diabetes (36 [19%] patients) and coronary heart disease (15 [8%] patients). Multivariable regression showed increasing odds of in-hospital death associated with older age (odds ratio 1·10, 95% CI 1·03–1·17, per year increase; p=0·0043), higher Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score (5·65, 2·61–12·23; p<0·0001), and d-dimer greater than 1 μg/mL (18·42, 2·64–128·55; p=0·0033) on admission. Median duration of viral shedding was 20·0 days (IQR 17·0–24·0) in survivors, but SARS-CoV-2 was detectable until death in non-survivors. The longest observed duration of viral shedding in survivors was 37 days. Interpretation The potential risk factors of older age, high SOFA score, and d-dimer greater than 1 μg/mL could help clinicians to identify patients with poor prognosis at an early stage. Prolonged viral shedding provides the rationale for a strategy of isolation of infected patients and optimal antiviral interventions in the future. Funding Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences Innovation Fund for Medical Sciences; National Science Grant for Distinguished Young Scholars; National Key Research and Development Program of China; The Beijing Science and Technology Project; and Major Projects of National Science and Technology on New Drug Creation and Development.
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            COVID‐19 in solid organ transplant recipients: Initial report from the US epicenter

            Solid organ transplant recipients may be at a high risk for SARS‐CoV‐2 infection and poor associated outcomes. We herein report our initial experience with solid organ transplant recipients with SARS‐CoV‐2 infection at two centers during the first 3 weeks of the outbreak in New York City. Baseline characteristics, clinical presentation, antiviral and immunosuppressive management were compared between patients with mild/moderate and severe disease (defined as ICU admission, intubation or death). Ninety patients were analyzed with a median age of 57 years. Forty‐six were kidney recipients, 17 lung, 13 liver, 9 heart, and 5 dual‐organ transplants. The most common presenting symptoms were fever (70%), cough (59%), and dyspnea (43%). Twenty‐two (24%) had mild, 41 (46%) moderate, and 27 (30%) severe disease. Among the 68 hospitalized patients, 12% required non‐rebreather and 35% required intubation. 91% received hydroxychloroquine, 66% azithromycin, 3% remdesivir, 21% tocilizumab, and 24% bolus steroids. Sixteen patients died (18% overall, 24% of hospitalized, 52% of ICU) and 37 (54%) were discharged. In this initial cohort, transplant recipients with COVID‐19 appear to have more severe outcomes, although testing limitations likely led to undercounting of mild/asymptomatic cases. As this outbreak unfolds, COVID‐19 has the potential to severely impact solid organ transplant recipients.
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              Is Open Access

              Characterization and clinical course of 1000 patients with coronavirus disease 2019 in New York: retrospective case series

              Abstract Objective To characterize patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (covid-19) in a large New York City medical center and describe their clinical course across the emergency department, hospital wards, and intensive care units. Design Retrospective manual medical record review. Setting NewYork-Presbyterian/Columbia University Irving Medical Center, a quaternary care academic medical center in New York City. Participants The first 1000 consecutive patients with a positive result on the reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction assay for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) who presented to the emergency department or were admitted to hospital between 1 March and 5 April 2020. Patient data were manually abstracted from electronic medical records. Main outcome measures Characterization of patients, including demographics, presenting symptoms, comorbidities on presentation, hospital course, time to intubation, complications, mortality, and disposition. Results Of the first 1000 patients, 150 presented to the emergency department, 614 were admitted to hospital (not intensive care units), and 236 were admitted or transferred to intensive care units. The most common presenting symptoms were cough (732/1000), fever (728/1000), and dyspnea (631/1000). Patients in hospital, particularly those treated in intensive care units, often had baseline comorbidities including hypertension, diabetes, and obesity. Patients admitted to intensive care units were older, predominantly male (158/236, 66.9%), and had long lengths of stay (median 23 days, interquartile range 12-32 days); 78.0% (184/236) developed acute kidney injury and 35.2% (83/236) needed dialysis. Only 4.4% (6/136) of patients who required mechanical ventilation were first intubated more than 14 days after symptom onset. Time to intubation from symptom onset had a bimodal distribution, with modes at three to four days, and at nine days. As of 30 April, 90 patients remained in hospital and 211 had died in hospital. Conclusions Patients admitted to hospital with covid-19 at this medical center faced major morbidity and mortality, with high rates of acute kidney injury and inpatient dialysis, prolonged intubations, and a bimodal distribution of time to intubation from symptom onset.

                Author and article information

                Eur Surg Res
                Eur Surg Res
                European Surgical Research
                S. Karger AG (Allschwilerstrasse 10, P.O. Box · Postfach · Case postale, CH–4009, Basel, Switzerland · Schweiz · Suisse, Phone: +41 61 306 11 11, Fax: +41 61 306 12 34, karger@karger.com )
                29 July 2021
                : 1-8
                [1] aClinical Institute of Urology and Renal Transplantation, Cluj-Napoca, Romania
                [2] bDepartment of Urology, University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Cluj-Napoca, Romania
                [3] cDepartment of Medical Informatics and Biostatistics, University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Cluj-Napoca, Romania
                [4] dDepartment of Infectious Diseases, University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Cluj-Napoca, Romania
                [5] eTransplant Institute, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden
                [6] fDepartment of Surgery, Institute for Clinical Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden
                Author notes
                *Florin Ioan Elec, ioan.elec@ 123456gmail.com
                Copyright © 2021 by S. Karger AG, Basel

                This article is made available via the PMC Open Access Subset for unrestricted re-use and analyses in any form or by any means with acknowledgement of the original source. These permissions are granted for the duration of the COVID-19 pandemic or until permissions are revoked in writing. Upon expiration of these permissions, PMC is granted a perpetual license to make this article available via PMC and Europe PMC, consistent with existing copyright protections.

                : 5 April 2021
                : 1 June 2021
                Page count
                Tables: 3, References: 32, Pages: 8
                Research Article

                covid-19,epidemic wave,kidney transplantation,outcome
                covid-19, epidemic wave, kidney transplantation, outcome


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