Alerte precoce, Biosecurite, Foyer d'infection, Gestion du risque, Laboratoire, Maladie emergente, Maladie emergente et reemergente hautement pathogene, Menace biologique, Mesure de protection, Prevention, Risque sanitaire, Terrorisme biologique, Vaccin, Zoonose emergente
Emerging infectious animal and zoonotic diseases can inflict significant losses on animal production and public health, and threaten the safety and security of the food system. Threat analysis (forecasting), which monitors the measurable risk indicators of disease emergence, should be in place before the emergence of any threat. Animal and public health authorities develop and regularly re-evaluate disease preparedness, response and recovery plans, based on the 'One Health' principle. These plans should include surveillance, biosecurity measures, communication channels and training for personnel. Scenarios for outbreaks of natural emerging infectious disease or bioterrorist events should be prepared and practised. National and international legislation should be regularly updated to provide a robust legal basis to manage outbreaks. Reference laboratories should have reliable and validated diagnostic tools for rapid, high-throughput testing. Strict biosafety, biocontainment and biosecurity control measures must be implemented in laboratories in order to prevent the accidental or malicious release of pathogens. The pharmaceutical industry should be incentivised to develop vaccines and/or antiviral drugs against disease outbreaks. Conventions between public authorities and the pharmaceutical industry should guarantee adequate stockpiling of the pharmaceuticals needed to control large-scale outbreaks. In the early phase of disease emergence (early warning), veterinarians and stakeholders play an important role in early detection at the farm level. Upon notification, veterinary authorities must take rapid response measures to limit disease spread. National and international short- and medium-term strategic research agendas should be developed, based on a comprehensive gap analysis and horizon scan. This planning will help to guide funding agencies and non-governmental organisations in their quest to support relevant research.