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      Ectopic Hepatocellular Carcinoma Arising from the Peritoneum in a Patient with a History of Oropharyngeal Cancer: A Case Report


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          A subphrenic mass was noted on a surveillance computed tomography (CT) scan of a 65-year-old man who had achieved complete remission of oropharyngeal cancer after concurrent chemoradiotherapy. The mass was 3.2 cm in size and showed a multilobular enhancing pattern along the peritoneal lining. The patient was negative for hepatitis B surface antigen and anti-hepatitis C virus antibody. His carcinoembryonic antigen level was within the normal range. Contrast-enhanced CT revealed no mass in the liver. He underwent surgery, and a pale yellowish soft tumor measuring 3.8 × 3.2 × 1.2 cm was resected. Histologically, the tumor was confirmed to be a hepatocellular carcinoma. Currently, he is doing well, and has been followed up without any signs of recurrence.

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          Most cited references15

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          Hepatocellular carcinoma: recent trends in Japan.

          During the past 20 years, primary liver cancer, 95% of which is hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), has ranked third in men and fifth in women as a cause of death from malignant neoplasm in Japan. The numbers of deaths and death rate from HCC showed a sharp increase beginning in 1975. Although both hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections are important causes, HCV-related HCC has accounted for most of the recent increase and now represents 75% of all HCC in Japan. Geographically, HCC is more frequent in western than eastern Japan, and the death rate of HCC in each prefecture correlates with prevalence of anti-HCV. Among patients with HCV-related HCC, a history of blood transfusion was a relatively important source of infection in the 1990s, whereas community-acquired infections increased after 2000. There was a negative correlation between the duration from onset of infection to development of HCC and the age at onset. Interferon therapy for chronic hepatitis C has reduced the risk for HCC, indicating that early detection of HCV carriers and better treatment will contribute to improved outcomes. Nationwide screening for HCV and HBV began in 2002 in Japan, and reduction of HCC is anticipated. Further research should focus on mechanisms of carcinogenesis by HCV and HBV, development of more effective treatments, and establishment of early detection and treatment approaches. Better understanding of HCC unrelated to HCV and HBV and possibly because of steatohepatitis and diabetes should also be a major concern in future studies.
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            Propensity of ectopic liver to hepatocarcinogenesis: case reports and a review of the literature.

            Two patients with ectopic liver are described. In one patient, a small ectopic liver attached to the gastric serosa developed hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The preoperative diagnosis was an alpha-fetoprotein (AFP)-producing carcinoma and a malignant ulcer of the stomach. Total gastrectomy and esophago-jejunostomy were performed. The tumor that measured 4 x 2 x 2 cm contained an AFP-producing HCC and normal liver tissue. In another patient who had alcoholic cirrhosis, ectopic liver on the serosa of the gallbladder was found to have the same histological changes as the mother liver. A survey of the literature disclosed more than 20 cases in which HCC developed outside the liver; the liver did not have HCC. By contrast, there was only one report on HCC occurring in the liver in the presence of a noncancerous, relatively large accessory liver lobe. Because ectopic liver does not have a complete vascular and ductal system as a normal liver, it is perhaps functionally handicapped and more prone to hepatocarcinogenesis.
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              Ectopic liver.

              Abnormally positioned liver tissue is rare but can occasionally cause clinical symptoms. The four main types are: 1. Accessory liver lobe that can reach a considerable size and is attached to the liver by a stalk. 2. Small accessory liver lobe which is attached to the liver but is usually small, about 10-30 g in weight. 3. Ectopic liver which is situated outside the liver without any connection with it. It is usually attached to the gallbladder or intra-abdominal ligaments. 4. Microscopic ectopic liver which is found occasionally in the wall of the gallbladder. The literature is reviewed and two cases of ectopic liver are described.

                Author and article information

                Case Reports in Oncology
                S. Karger AG
                September – December 2015
                29 October 2015
                : 8
                : 3
                : 456-460
                aDivision of Hematology-Oncology, Department of Internal Medicine, and Departments of bGeneral Surgery and cPathology, Busan Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Busan, South Korea
                Author notes
                *Ki Hyang Kim, Division of Hematology-Oncology, Department of Internal Medicine, Busan Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, 75 Bokji ro, Gin gu, Busan 614-735 (South Korea), E-Mail pori76@hanmail.net
                441020 PMC4649744 Case Rep Oncol 2015;8:456-460
                © 2015 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel

                This article is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License (CC BY-NC). Usage and distribution for commercial purposes requires written permission. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 3, References: 15, Pages: 5
                Published: October 2015

                Oncology & Radiotherapy,Pathology,Surgery,Obstetrics & Gynecology,Pharmacology & Pharmaceutical medicine,Hematology
                Ectopic hepatocellular carcinoma,Ectopic liver


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