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      Cell Volume Regulation in Liver

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          Abstract

          The maintenance of liver cell volume in isotonic extracellular fluid requires the continuous supply of energy: sodium is extruded in exchange for potassium by the sodium/potassium ATPase, conductive potassium efflux creates a cell-negative membrane potential, which expelles chloride through conductive pathways. Thus, the various organic substances accumulated within the cell are osmotically counterbalanced in large part by the large difference of chloride concentration across the cell membrane. Impairment of energy supply leads to dissipation of ion gradients, depolarization and cell swelling. However, even in the presence of ouabain the liver cell can extrude ions by furosemide-sensitive transport in intracellular vesicles and subsequent exocytosis. In isotonic extracellular fluid cell swelling may follow an increase in extracellular potassium concentration, which impairs potassium efflux and depolarizes the cell membrane leading to chloride accumulation. Replacement of extracellular chloride with impermeable anions leads to cell shrinkage. During excessive sodium-coupled entry of amino acids and subsequent stimulation of sodium/potassium-ATPase by increase in intracellular sodium activity, an increase in cell volume is blunted by activation of potassium channels, which maintain cell membrane potential and allow for loss of cellular potassium. Cell swelling induced by exposure of liver cells to hypotonic extracellular fluid is followed by regulatory volume decrease (RVD), cell shrinkage induced by reexposure to isotonic perfusate is followed by regulatory volume increase (RVI). Available evidence suggests that RVD is accomplished by activation of potassium channels, hyperpolarization and subsequent extrusion of chloride along with potassium, and that RVI depends on the activation of sodium hydrogen ion exchange with subsequent activation of sodium/potassium-ATPase leading to the respective accumulation of potassium and bicarbonate. In addition, exposure of liver to anisotonic perfusates alters glycogen degradation, glycolysis and probably urea formation, which are enhanced by exposure to hypertonic perfusates and depressed by hypotonic perfusates.

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          Author and article information

          Journal
          KBR
          Kidney Blood Press Res
          10.1159/issn.1420-4096
          Kidney and Blood Pressure Research
          S. Karger AG
          978-3-8055-4986-8
          978-3-318-05785-0
          1420-4096
          1423-0143
          1988
          1988
          07 November 2008
          : 11
          : 3-5
          : 202-220
          Affiliations
          aDepartment of General and Experimental Pathology University of Vienna, Austria; bDepartment of Medicine, University of Freiburg, FRG; cDepartment of Physiology, University of Innsbruck, Austria
          Article
          173163 Renal Physiol Biochem 1988;11:202–220
          10.1159/000173163
          3074399
          © 1988 S. Karger AG, Basel

          Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

          Page count
          Pages: 19
          Categories
          Cell Volume Regulation

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