Two fundamental ingredients play a decisive role in the foundation of fluctuation relations: the principle of microreversibility and the fact that thermal equilibrium is described by the Gibbs canonical ensemble. Building on these two pillars we guide the reader through a self-contained exposition of the theory and applications of quantum fluctuation relations. These are exact results that constitute the fulcrum of the recent development of nonequilibrium thermodynamics beyond the linear response regime. The material is organized in a way that emphasizes the historical connection between quantum fluctuation relations and (non)-linear response theory. We also attempt to clarify a number of fundamental issues which were not completely settled in the prior literature. The main focus is on (i) work fluctuation relations for transiently driven closed or open quantum systems, and (ii) on fluctuation relations for heat and matter exchange in quantum transport settings. Recently performed and proposed experimental applications are presented and discussed.