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      Nanostructured Fe2 O3 Processing via Water-Assisted ALD and Low-Temperature CVD from a Versatile Iron Ketoiminate Precursor

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          High-Resolution X-Ray Photoemission Spectrum of the Valence Bands of Gold

           D. A. Shirley (1972)
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            Solar water splitting: progress using hematite (α-Fe(2) O(3) ) photoelectrodes.

            Photoelectrochemical (PEC) cells offer the ability to convert electromagnetic energy from our largest renewable source, the Sun, to stored chemical energy through the splitting of water into molecular oxygen and hydrogen. Hematite (α-Fe(2)O(3)) has emerged as a promising photo-electrode material due to its significant light absorption, chemical stability in aqueous environments, and ample abundance. However, its performance as a water-oxidizing photoanode has been crucially limited by poor optoelectronic properties that lead to both low light harvesting efficiencies and a large requisite overpotential for photoassisted water oxidation. Recently, the application of nanostructuring techniques and advanced interfacial engineering has afforded landmark improvements in the performance of hematite photoanodes. In this review, new insights into the basic material properties, the attractive aspects, and the challenges in using hematite for photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting are first examined. Next, recent progress enhancing the photocurrent by precise morphology control and reducing the overpotential with surface treatments are critically detailed and compared. The latest efforts using advanced characterization techniques, particularly electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, are finally presented. These methods help to define the obstacles that remain to be surmounted in order to fully exploit the potential of this promising material for solar energy conversion. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
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              New benchmark for water photooxidation by nanostructured alpha-Fe2O3 films.

              Thin films of silicon-doped Fe2O3 were deposited by APCVD (atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition) from Fe(CO)5 and TEOS (tetraethoxysilane) on SnO2-coated glass at 415 degrees C. HRSEM reveals a highly developed dendritic nanostructure of 500 nm thickness having a feature size of only 10-20 nm at the surface. Real surface area determination by dye adsorption yields a roughness factor of 21. XRD shows the films to be pure hematite with strong preferential orientation of the [110] axis vertical to the substrate, induced by silicon doping. Under illumination in 1 M NaOH, water is oxidized at the Fe2O3 electrode with higher efficiency (IPCE = 42% at 370 nm and 2.2 mA/cm2 in AM 1.5 G sunlight of 1000 W/m2 at 1.23 VRHE) than at the best reported single crystalline Fe2O3 electrodes. This unprecedented efficiency is in part attributed to the dendritic nanostructure which minimizes the distance photogenerated holes have to diffuse to reach the Fe2O3/electrolyte interface while still allowing efficient light absorption. Part of the gain in efficiency is obtained by depositing a thin insulating SiO2 interfacial layer between the SnO2 substrate and the Fe2O3 film and a catalytic cobalt monolayer on the Fe2O3 surface. A mechanistic model for water photooxidation is presented, involving stepwise accumulation of four holes by two vicinal iron or cobalt surface sites.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Advanced Materials Interfaces
                Adv. Mater. Interfaces
                Wiley
                21967350
                September 2017
                September 2017
                May 08 2017
                : 4
                : 18
                : 1700155
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Inorganic Materials Chemistry; Ruhr-University Bochum; Universitätsstr. 150 44801 Bochum Germany
                [2 ]Institute of Electrochemistry; Ulm University; Albert-Einstein-Allee 47 89069 Ulm Germany
                [3 ]RUBION; Ruhr-University Bochum; Universitätsstr. 150 44801 Bochum Germany
                [4 ]Technical and Macromolecular Chemistry; University Paderborn; Warburgerstr. 100 33098 Paderborn Germany
                [5 ]Chair of Applied Laser Technologies; Ruhr-University Bochum; Universitätsstr. 150 44801 Bochum Germany
                Article
                10.1002/admi.201700155
                © 2017

                http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/tdm_license_1.1

                http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/termsAndConditions#vor

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