Growth hormone (GH)-secreting pituitary tumours represent the most genetically determined pituitary tumour type. This is true both for germline and somatic mutations. Germline mutations occur in several known genes ( AIP, PRKAR1A, GPR101, GNAS, MEN1, CDKN1B, SDHx, MAX) as well as familial cases with currently unknown genes, while somatic mutations in GNAS are present in up to 40% of tumours. If the disease starts before the fusion of the epiphysis, then accelerated growth and increased final height, or gigantism, can develop, where a genetic background can be identified in half of the cases. Hereditary GH-secreting pituitary adenoma (PA) can manifest as isolated tumours, familial isolated pituitary adenoma (FIPA) including cases with AIP mutations or GPR101 duplications (X-linked acrogigantism, XLAG) or can be a part of systemic diseases like multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 or type 4, McCune–Albright syndrome, Carney complex or phaeochromocytoma/paraganglioma-pituitary adenoma association. Family history and a search for associated syndromic manifestations can help to draw attention to genetic causes; many of these are now tested as part of gene panels. Identifying genetic mutations allows appropriate screening of associated comorbidities as well as finding affected family members before the clinical manifestation of the disease. This review focuses on germline and somatic mutations predisposing to acromegaly and gigantism.