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Cardiac regeneration and diabetes

Regenerative Medicine Research

BioMed Central

diabetic cardiomyopathy, cardiac stem cells, stem cells, cardiac regeneration

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      Abstract

      The prevalence of diabetes continues to increase world-wide and is a leading cause of morbidity, mortality, and rapidly rising health care costs. Although strict glucose control combined with good pharmacological and non-pharmacologic interventions can increase diabetic patient life span, the frequency and mortality of myocardial ischemia and infarction remain drastically increased in diabetic patients. Therefore, more effective therapeutic approaches are urgently needed. Over the past 15 years, cellular repair of the injured adult heart has become the focus of a rapidly expanding broad spectrum of pre-clinical and clinical research. Recent clinical trials have achieved favorable initial endpoints with improvements in cardiac function and clinical symptoms following cellular therapy. Due to the increased risk of cardiac disease, cardiac regeneration may be one strategy to treat patients with diabetic cardiomyopathy and/or myocardial infarction. However, pre-clinical studies suggest that the diabetic myocardium may not be a favorable environment for the transplantation and survival of stem cells due to altered kinetics in cellular homing, survival, and in situ remodeling. Therefore, unique conditions in the diabetic myocardium will require novel solutions in order to increase the efficiency of cellular repair following ischemia and/or infarction. This review briefly summarizes some of the recent advances in cardiac regeneration in non-diabetic conditions and then provides an overview of some of the issues related to diabetes that must be addressed in the coming years.

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      Most cited references 84

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      Induction of pluripotent stem cells from mouse embryonic and adult fibroblast cultures by defined factors.

      Differentiated cells can be reprogrammed to an embryonic-like state by transfer of nuclear contents into oocytes or by fusion with embryonic stem (ES) cells. Little is known about factors that induce this reprogramming. Here, we demonstrate induction of pluripotent stem cells from mouse embryonic or adult fibroblasts by introducing four factors, Oct3/4, Sox2, c-Myc, and Klf4, under ES cell culture conditions. Unexpectedly, Nanog was dispensable. These cells, which we designated iPS (induced pluripotent stem) cells, exhibit the morphology and growth properties of ES cells and express ES cell marker genes. Subcutaneous transplantation of iPS cells into nude mice resulted in tumors containing a variety of tissues from all three germ layers. Following injection into blastocysts, iPS cells contributed to mouse embryonic development. These data demonstrate that pluripotent stem cells can be directly generated from fibroblast cultures by the addition of only a few defined factors.
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        Induction of pluripotent stem cells from adult human fibroblasts by defined factors.

        Successful reprogramming of differentiated human somatic cells into a pluripotent state would allow creation of patient- and disease-specific stem cells. We previously reported generation of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells, capable of germline transmission, from mouse somatic cells by transduction of four defined transcription factors. Here, we demonstrate the generation of iPS cells from adult human dermal fibroblasts with the same four factors: Oct3/4, Sox2, Klf4, and c-Myc. Human iPS cells were similar to human embryonic stem (ES) cells in morphology, proliferation, surface antigens, gene expression, epigenetic status of pluripotent cell-specific genes, and telomerase activity. Furthermore, these cells could differentiate into cell types of the three germ layers in vitro and in teratomas. These findings demonstrate that iPS cells can be generated from adult human fibroblasts.
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          Bone marrow cells regenerate infarcted myocardium.

          Myocardial infarction leads to loss of tissue and impairment of cardiac performance. The remaining myocytes are unable to reconstitute the necrotic tissue, and the post-infarcted heart deteriorates with time. Injury to a target organ is sensed by distant stem cells, which migrate to the site of damage and undergo alternate stem cell differentiation; these events promote structural and functional repair. This high degree of stem cell plasticity prompted us to test whether dead myocardium could be restored by transplanting bone marrow cells in infarcted mice. We sorted lineage-negative (Lin-) bone marrow cells from transgenic mice expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein by fluorescence-activated cell sorting on the basis of c-kit expression. Shortly after coronary ligation, Lin- c-kitPOS cells were injected in the contracting wall bordering the infarct. Here we report that newly formed myocardium occupied 68% of the infarcted portion of the ventricle 9 days after transplanting the bone marrow cells. The developing tissue comprised proliferating myocytes and vascular structures. Our studies indicate that locally delivered bone marrow cells can generate de novo myocardium, ameliorating the outcome of coronary artery disease.
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            Author and article information

            Journal
            25984329
            10.1186/2050-490X-2-1
            4422323

            http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0

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