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      On the Somatosensation of Vision

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          Abstract

          The interconnection between vision and somatosensation is already well-established and is further supplemented by the evolutionary link between eyes and photoreceptors, and the functional connection between photosensation and thermoreception. However, our analysis shows that the relation between vision and somatosensation is much deeper and suggests that somatosensation may possibly be the basis of vision. Surprisingly, our photoreceptor itself needs somatosensory proteins for its functioning, and our entire visual pathway depends on somatosensory cues for its functioning.

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          Most cited references 80

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          Neural systems for recognizing emotion.

           Ralph Adolphs (2002)
          Recognition of emotion draws on a distributed set of structures that include the occipitotemporal neocortex, amygdala, orbitofrontal cortex and right frontoparietal cortices. Recognition of fear may draw especially on the amygdala and the detection of disgust may rely on the insula and basal ganglia. Two important mechanisms for recognition of emotions are the construction of a simulation of the observed emotion in the perceiver, and the modulation of sensory cortices via top-down influences.
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            Distinctive Paleo-Indian migration routes from Beringia marked by two rare mtDNA haplogroups.

            It is widely accepted that the ancestors of Native Americans arrived in the New World via Beringia approximately 10 to 30 thousand years ago (kya). However, the arrival time(s), number of expansion events, and migration routes into the Western Hemisphere remain controversial because linguistic, archaeological, and genetic evidence have not yet provided coherent answers. Notably, most of the genetic evidence has been acquired from the analysis of the common pan-American mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroups. In this study, we have instead identified and analyzed mtDNAs belonging to two rare Native American haplogroups named D4h3 and X2a. Phylogeographic analyses at the highest level of molecular resolution (69 entire mitochondrial genomes) reveal that two almost concomitant paths of migration from Beringia led to the Paleo-Indian dispersal approximately 15-17 kya. Haplogroup D4h3 spread into the Americas along the Pacific coast, whereas X2a entered through the ice-free corridor between the Laurentide and Cordilleran ice sheets. The examination of an additional 276 entire mtDNA sequences provides similar entry times for all common Native American haplogroups, thus indicating at least a dual origin for Paleo- Indians. A dual origin for the first Americans is a striking novelty from the genetic point of view, and it makes plausible a scenario positing that within a rather short period of time, there may have been several entries into the Americas from a dynamically changing Beringian source. Moreover, this implies that most probably more than one language family was carried along with the Paleo-Indians.
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              Mechanisms of sensory transduction in the skin.

              Sensory neurons innervating the skin encode the familiar sensations of temperature, touch and pain. An explosion of progress has revealed unanticipated cellular and molecular complexity in these senses. It is now clear that perception of a single stimulus, such as heat, requires several transduction mechanisms. Conversely, a given protein may contribute to multiple senses, such as heat and touch. Recent studies have also led to the surprising insight that skin cells might transduce temperature and touch. To break the code underlying somatosensation, we must therefore understand how the skin's sensory functions are divided among signalling molecules and cell types.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Ann Neurosci
                Ann Neurosci
                ANS
                Annals of Neurosciences
                Indian Academy of Neurosciences
                0972-7531
                0976-3260
                January 2012
                : 19
                : 1
                : 31-39
                Affiliations
                Department of Applied Mechanics, IIT Madras, Chennai, TN 600 036.
                Author notes
                [* ]Corresponding author: Touch lab, Department of Applied Mechanics IIT Madras, Chennai, TN 600 036.+91-44-22574064 mani@ 123456iitm.ac.in
                Article
                180409
                10.5214/ans.0972.7531.180409
                4117078
                Copyright © 2012, Annals of Neurosciences
                Categories
                Mini Review
                Neuroophthalmology

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