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      Consumption of a diet rich in Brassica vegetables is associated with a reduced abundance of sulphate‐reducing bacteria: A randomised crossover study

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          Abstract

          Scope

          We examined whether a Brassica‐rich diet was associated with an increase in the relative abundance of intestinal lactobacilli and sulphate‐reducing bacteria (SRB), or alteration to the composition of the gut microbiota, in healthy adults.

          Methods and results

          A randomised crossover study was performed with ten healthy adults who were fed a high‐ and a low‐ Brassica diet for 2‐wk periods, with a 2‐wk washout phase separating the diets. The high‐ Brassica diet consisted of six 84 g portions of broccoli, six 84 g portions of cauliflower and six 300 g portions of a broccoli and sweet potato soup. The low‐ Brassica diet consisted of one 84 g portion of broccoli and one 84 g portion of cauliflower. Faecal microbiota composition was measured in samples collected following 2‐wk Brassica‐free periods (consumption of all Brassica prohibited), and after each diet, whereby the only Brassica consumed was that supplied by the study team. No significant changes to the relative abundance of lactobacilli were observed ( p = 0.8019). The increased consumption of Brassica was associated with a reduction in the relative abundance of SRB ( p = 0.0215), and members of the Rikenellaceae, Ruminococcaceae, Mogibacteriaceae, Clostridium and unclassified Clostridiales ( p < 0.01).

          Conclusion

          The increased consumption of Brassica vegetables was linked to a reduced relative abundance of SRB, and therefore may be potentially beneficial to gastrointestinal health.

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          Most cited references24

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          Global patterns of 16S rRNA diversity at a depth of millions of sequences per sample.

          The ongoing revolution in high-throughput sequencing continues to democratize the ability of small groups of investigators to map the microbial component of the biosphere. In particular, the coevolution of new sequencing platforms and new software tools allows data acquisition and analysis on an unprecedented scale. Here we report the next stage in this coevolutionary arms race, using the Illumina GAIIx platform to sequence a diverse array of 25 environmental samples and three known "mock communities" at a depth averaging 3.1 million reads per sample. We demonstrate excellent consistency in taxonomic recovery and recapture diversity patterns that were previously reported on the basis of metaanalysis of many studies from the literature (notably, the saline/nonsaline split in environmental samples and the split between host-associated and free-living communities). We also demonstrate that 2,000 Illumina single-end reads are sufficient to recapture the same relationships among samples that we observe with the full dataset. The results thus open up the possibility of conducting large-scale studies analyzing thousands of samples simultaneously to survey microbial communities at an unprecedented spatial and temporal resolution.
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            Two's company, three's a crowd: can H2S be the third endogenous gaseous transmitter?

            Rui Wang (2002)
            Bearing the public image of a deadly "gas of rotten eggs," hydrogen sulfide (H2S) can be generated in many types of mammalian cells. Functionally, H2S has been implicated in the induction of hippocampal long-term potentiation, brain development, and blood pressure regulation. By acting specifically on KATP channels, H2S can hyperpolarize cell membranes, relax smooth muscle cells, or decrease neuronal excitability. The endogenous metabolism and physiological functions of H2S position this gas well in the novel family of endogenous gaseous transmitters, termed "gasotransmitters." It is hypothesized that H2S is the third endogenous signaling gasotransmitter, besides nitric oxide and carbon monoxide. This positioning of H2S will open an exciting field-H2S physiology-encompassing realization of the interaction of H2S and other gasotransmitters, sulfurating modification of proteins, and the functional role of H2S in multiple systems. It may shed light on the pathogenesis of many diseases related to the abnormal metabolism of H2S.
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              Desulfovibrio bacterial species are increased in ulcerative colitis.

              Debate persists regarding the role of Desulfovibrio subspecies in ulcerative colitis. Combined microscopic and molecular techniques enable this issue to be investigated by allowing precise enumeration of specific bacterial species within the colonic mucous gel. The aim of this study was to combine laser capture microdissection and quantitative polymerase chain reaction to determine Desulfovibrio copy number in crypt-associated mucous gel in health and in acute and chronic ulcerative colitis. Colonic mucosal biopsies were harvested from healthy controls (n = 19) and patients with acute (n = 10) or chronic (n = 10) ulcerative colitis. Crypt-associated mucous gel was obtained by laser capture microdissection throughout the colon. Pan-bacterial 16S rRNA and Desulfovibrio copy number/mm were obtained by polymerase chain reaction at each locus. Bacterial copy numbers were interrogated for correlation with location and disease activity. Data were evaluated using a combination of ordinary linear methods and linear mixed-effects models to cater for multiple interactions. Desulfovibrio positivity was significantly increased in acute and chronic ulcerative colitis at multiple levels within the colon, and after normalization with total bacterial signal, the relative Desulfovibrio load was increased in acute colitis compared with controls. Desulfovibrio counts did not significantly correlate with age, disease duration, or disease activity but interlevel correlations were found in adjacent colonic segments in the healthy control and chronic ulcerative colitis groups. The presence of Desulfovibrio subspecies is increased in ulcerative colitis and the data presented suggest that these bacteria represent an increased percentage of the colonic microbiome in acute ulcerative colitis.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                richard.mithen@ifr.ac.uk
                Journal
                Mol Nutr Food Res
                Mol Nutr Food Res
                10.1002/(ISSN)1613-4133
                MNFR
                Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
                John Wiley and Sons Inc. (Hoboken )
                1613-4125
                1613-4133
                12 April 2017
                September 2017
                : 61
                : 9 ( doiID: 10.1002/mnfr.v61.9 )
                : 1600992
                Affiliations
                [ 1 ] Food and Health Programme Institute of Food Research Norwich Research Park Norwich UK
                [ 2 ] Analytical Sciences Unit Institute of Food Research Norwich Research Park Norwich UK
                [ 3 ] Gut Health and Food Safety Programme Institute of Food Research Norwich Research Park Norwich UK
                Author notes
                [*] [* ] Correspondence: Richard Mithen

                E‐mail: richard.mithen@ 123456ifr.ac.uk

                Author information
                http://orcid.org/0000-0002-6135-6321
                Article
                MNFR2898
                10.1002/mnfr.201600992
                5600105
                28296348
                51440b5d-6c9d-4f63-824b-03461ab7c8a6
                © 2017 The Authors. Molecular Nutrition & Food Research published by WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim

                This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                History
                : 11 November 2016
                : 16 February 2017
                : 24 February 2017
                Page count
                Figures: 5, Tables: 3, Pages: 11, Words: 7135
                Funding
                Funded by: Danish Council for Strategic Research
                Funded by: Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council
                Award ID: BB/J004545/1
                Award ID: BBS/E/F/00042624
                Categories
                Research Article
                Research Articles
                Custom metadata
                2.0
                mnfr2898
                September 2017
                Converter:WILEY_ML3GV2_TO_NLMPMC version:5.1.9 mode:remove_FC converted:15.09.2017

                Nutrition & Dietetics
                brassica,gastrointestinal health,gut microbiota,randomised crossover study,sulphate‐reducing bacteria

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