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      Biological Evaluation and 3D-QSAR Studies of Curcumin Analogues as Aldehyde Dehydrogenase 1 Inhibitors

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          Abstract

          Aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (ALDH1) is reported as a biomarker for identifying some cancer stem cells, and down-regulation or inhibition of the enzyme can be effective in anti-drug resistance and a potent therapeutic for some tumours. In this paper, the inhibitory activity, mechanism mode, molecular docking and 3D-QSAR (three-dimensional quantitative structure activity relationship) of curcumin analogues (CAs) against ALDH1 were studied. Results demonstrated that curcumin and CAs possessed potent inhibitory activity against ALDH1, and the CAs compound with ortho di-hydroxyl groups showed the most potent inhibitory activity. This study indicates that CAs may represent a new class of ALDH1 inhibitor.

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          Most cited references 24

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          The cellular basis of corneal transparency: evidence for 'corneal crystallins'.

          In vivo corneal light scattering measurements using a novel confocal microscope demonstrated greatly increased backscatter from corneal stromal fibrocytes (keratocytes) in opaque compared to transparent corneal tissue in both humans and rabbits. Additionally, two water-soluble proteins, transketolase (TKT) and aldehyde dehydrogenase class 1 (ALDH1), isolated from rabbit keratocytes showed unexpectedly abundant expression ( approximately 30% of the soluble protein) in transparent corneas and markedly reduced levels in opaque scleral fibroblasts or keratocytes from hazy, freeze injured regions of the cornea. Together these data suggest that the relatively high expressions of TKT and ALDH1 contribute to corneal transparency in the rabbit at the cellular level, reminiscent of enzyme-crystallins in the lens. We also note that ALDH1 accumulates in the rabbit corneal epithelial cells, rather than ALDH3 as seen in other mammals, consistent with the taxon-specificity observed among lens enzyme-crystallins. Our results suggest that corneal cells, like lens cells, may preferentially express water-soluble proteins, often enzymes, for controlling their optical properties.
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            A review of therapeutic effects of curcumin.

            There is a growing interest in herbal medicine. Scientific studies have demonstrated the beneficial pharmacological effects of curcumin. Curcumin is a bright yellow spice, derived from the rhizome of Curcuma longa Linn. It has been proven that curcumin is a highly pleiotropic molecule which can be a modulator of intracellular signaling pathways that control cell growth, inflammation, and apoptosis. Curcumin might be a potential candidate for the prevention and/or treatment of some diseases due to its anti-oxidant, antiinflammatory activities and an excellent safety profile. We present an updated concise review of currently available animal and clinical studies demonstrating the therapeutic effect of curcumin.
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              Role of aldehyde dehydrogenase in cyclophosphamide-resistant L1210 leukemia.

              A cyclophosphamide-resistant L1210 cell line has been shown to have unusually high aldehyde dehydrogenase activity. The sensitivity of this cell line to 4-methylcyclophosphamide and phosphoramide mustard in vivo and corresponding sensitivities in vitro indicate that 4-hydroxycyclophosphamide and/or aldophosphamide is the form in which cyclophosphamide reaches these tumor cells in mice and that intracellular aldehyde dehydrogenase activity is an important determinant of cyclophosphamide sensitivity in these leukemia cell lines.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Int J Mol Sci
                Int J Mol Sci
                ijms
                International Journal of Molecular Sciences
                Molecular Diversity Preservation International (MDPI)
                1422-0067
                May 2014
                16 May 2014
                : 15
                : 5
                : 8795-8807
                ijms-15-08795
                10.3390/ijms15058795
                4057759
                24840575
                © 2014 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland

                This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/).

                Categories
                Article

                Molecular biology

                curcumin analogues, curcumin, aldh1, inhibitor, 3d-qsar

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