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      PET-Guided Surgery — High Correlation between Positron Emission Tomography with 11C-5-Hydroxytryptophane (5-HTP) and Surgical Findings in Abdominal Neuroendocrine Tumours


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          Positron emission tomography (PET) with 11C-labeled 5-hydroxytryptophane (5-HTP) is a sensitive technique to visualize neuroendocrine tumours (NETs), due to high intracellular uptake of amine-precursors like L-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA) and 5-HTP. NETs are often small and difficult to localize in spite of overt clinical symptoms due to hormonal excess. In our study, 38 consecutive NET patients underwent 11C-5-HTP-PET and morphological imaging by CT within 12 weeks prior to surgery. Surgical, histopathological and 5-HTP PET findings were correlated. 11C-5-HTP-PET corresponded to the surgical findings in 31 cases, was false negative in six, and true negative in one case resulting in 83.8% sensitivity and 100% specificity. Positive predicted value was 100%. In 11 patients 11C-5-HTP-PET was the only imaging method applied to localize the tumour. Thus, we could demonstrate that functional imaging by 11C-5-HTP-PET in many cases adds vital preoperative diagnostic information and in more than every fourth patient was the only imaging method that will guide the surgeon in finding the NET-lesion. Although the present results demonstrates that 11C-5-HTP may be used as an universal NET tracer, the sensitivity to visualize benign insulinomas and non functioning pancreatic NETs was lower.

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          68Ga-DOTA-Tyr3-octreotide PET in neuroendocrine tumors: comparison with somatostatin receptor scintigraphy and CT.

          The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic value of a new somatostatin analog, (68)Ga-labeled 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-N,N',N'',N'''-tetraacetic acid-d-Phe(1)-Tyr(3)-octreotide ((68)Ga-DOTA-TOC), for PET in patients with known or suspected neuroendocrine tumors. PET was compared with conventional scintigraphy and dedicated CT. Eighty-four patients (48 men, 36 women; age range, 28-79 y; mean age +/- SD, 58.2 +/- 12.2 y) were prospectively studied. For analysis, patients were divided into 3 groups: detection of unknown primary tumor in the presence of clinical or biochemical suspicion of neuroendocrine malignancy (n = 13 patients), initial tumor staging (n = 36 patients), and follow-up after therapy (n = 35 patients). Each patient received 100-150 MBq (68)Ga-DOTA-TOC. Imaging results of PET were compared with (99m)Tc-labeled hydrazinonicotinyl-Tyr(3)-octreotide ((99m)Tc-HYNIC-TOC) and (111)In-DOTA-TOC. CT was also performed on every patient using a multidetector scanner. Each imaging modality was interpreted separately by observers who were unaware of imaging findings before comparison with PET. The gold standard for defining true-positive (TP), true-negative (TN), false-positive (FP), and false-negative (FN) results was based on all available histologic, imaging, and follow-up findings. PET was TP in 69 patients, TN in 12 patients, FP in 1 patient, and FN in 2 patients, indicating a sensitivity of 97%, a specificity of 92%, and an accuracy of 96%. The FP finding was caused by enhanced tracer accumulation in the pancreatic head, and the FN results were obtained in patients with a tumor of the gastrointestinal tract displaying liver metastases. (68)Ga-DOTA-TOC showed higher diagnostic efficacy compared with SPECT (TP in 37 patients, TN in 12 patients, FP in 1 patient, and FN in 34 patients) and diagnostic CT (TP in 41 patients, TN in 12 patients, FP in 5 patients, and FN in 26 patients). This difference was of statistical significance (P < 0.001). However, the combined use of PET and CT showed the highest overall accuracy. (68)Ga-DOTA-TOC PET shows a significantly higher detection rate compared with conventional somatostatin receptor scintigraphy and diagnostic CT with clinical impact in a considerable number of patients.
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            The diagnosis and medical management of advanced neuroendocrine tumors.

            Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) constitute a heterogeneous group of neoplasms that originate from endocrine glands such as the pituitary, the parathyroids, and the (neuroendocrine) adrenal, as well as endocrine islets within glandular tissue (thyroid or pancreatic) and cells dispersed between exocrine cells, such as endocrine cells of the digestive (gastroenteropancreatic) and respiratory tracts. Conventionally, NETs may present with a wide variety of functional or nonfunctional endocrine syndromes and may be familial and have other associated tumors. Assessment of specific or general tumor markers offers high sensitivity in establishing the diagnosis and can also have prognostic significance. Imaging modalities include endoscopic ultrasonography, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, and particularly, scintigraphy with somatostatin analogs and metaiodobenzylguanidine. Successful treatment of disseminated NETs requires a multimodal approach; radical tumor surgery may be curative but is rarely possible. Well-differentiated and slow-growing gastroenteropancreatic tumors should be treated with somatostatin analogs or alpha-interferon, with chemotherapy being reserved for poorly differentiated and progressive tumors. Therapy with radionuclides may be used for tumors exhibiting uptake to a diagnostic scan, either after surgery to eradicate microscopic residual disease or later if conventional treatment or biotherapy fails. Maintenance of the quality of life should be a priority, particularly because patients with disseminated disease may experience prolonged survival.
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              Somatostatin-receptor-based imaging and therapy of gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors.

              Somatostatin receptor imaging (SRI) with [(111)In-DTPA(0)]octreotide has proven its role in the diagnosis and staging of gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (GEPNETs). Newer radiolabeled somatostatin analogs which can be used in positron emission tomography (PET) imaging, and which have a higher affinity for the somatostatin receptor, especially receptor subtype-2, have been developed. It would be desirable, however, if one radiolabeled analog became the new standard for PET imaging, because the current application of a multitude of analogs implies a fragmented knowledge on the interpretation of the images that are obtained in clinical practice. In our view, the most likely candidates for such a universal PET tracer for SRI are [(68)Ga-DOTA(0),Tyr(3)]octreotate or [(68)Ga-DOTA(0),Tyr(3)]octreotide. Treatment with radiolabeled somatostatin analogs is a promising new tool in the management of patients with inoperable or metastasized neuroendocrine tumors. Symptomatic improvement may occur with all (111)In-, (90)Y-, or (177)Lu-labeled somatostatin analogs that have been used for peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT). The results that were obtained with [(90)Y-DOTA(0),Tyr(3)]octreotide and [(177)Lu-DOTA(0),Tyr(3)]octreotate are very encouraging in terms of tumor regression. Also, if kidney protective agents are used, the side effects of this therapy are few and mild, and the median duration of the therapy response for these radiopharmaceuticals is 30 and 40 months respectively. The patients' self-assessed quality of life increases significantly after treatment with [(177)Lu-DOTA(0),Tyr(3)]octreotate. Lastly, compared to historical controls, there is a benefit in overall survival of several years from the time of diagnosis in patients treated with [(177)Lu-DOTA(0),Tyr(3)]octreotate. These data compare favorably with the limited number of alternative treatment approaches. If more widespread use of PRRT can be guaranteed, such therapy may well become the therapy of first choice in patients with metastasized or inoperable GEPNETs.

                Author and article information

                Cancers (Basel)
                Cancers (Basel)
                08 February 2012
                March 2012
                : 4
                : 1
                : 100-112
                [1 ]Departments of Medical Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala SE-751 85, Sweden; E-Mails: hakan.orlefors@ 123456akademiska.se (H.O.); barbro.eriksson@ 123456medsci.uu.se (B.E.); britt.skogseid@ 123456medsci.uu.se (B.S.); kjell.oberg@ 123456medsci.uu.se (K.O.)
                [2 ]Department of Radiology, Karolinska Hospital, Institution of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm SE-171 77, Sweden; E-Mail: anders.sundin@ 123456ki.se
                [3 ]Department of Radiology, Uppsala University Hospital, Uppsala SE-751 85, Sweden
                [4 ]Department of Surgical Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala SE-751 85, Sweden; E-Mail: goran.akerstrom@ 123456surgsci.uu.se
                Author notes
                [* ] Author to whom correspondence should be addressed; E-Mail: per.hellman@ 123456surgsci.uu.se ; Tel.: +46-18-611-4617; Fax: +46-18-504-414.
                © 2012 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

                This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/).

                : 29 November 2011
                : 29 January 2012
                : 30 January 2012

                neuroendocrine tumour,positron emission tomography,hydroxytryptophane,insulinoma,surgery


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