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    Unusual insidious spinal accessory nerve palsy: a case report

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        Abstract

        IntroductionIsolated spinal accessory nerve dysfunction has a major detrimental impact on the functional performance of the shoulder girdle, and is a well-documented complication of surgical procedures in the posterior triangle of the neck. To the best of our knowledge, the natural course and the most effective way of handling spontaneous spinal accessory nerve palsy has been described in only a few instances in the literature.Case presentationWe report the case of a 36-year-old Caucasian, Greek man with spontaneous unilateral trapezius palsy with an insidious course. To the best of our knowledge, few such cases have been documented in the literature. The unusual clinical presentation and functional performance mismatch with the imaging findings were also observed. Our patient showed a deterioration that was different from the usual course of this pathology, with an early onset of irreversible trapezius muscle dysfunction two months after the first clinical signs started to manifest. A surgical reconstruction was proposed as the most efficient treatment, but our patient declined this. Although he failed to recover fully after conservative treatment for eight months, he regained moderate function and is currently virtually pain-free.ConclusionClinicians have to be aware that due to anatomical variation and the potential for compensation by the levator scapulae, the clinical consequences of any injury to the spinal accessory nerve may vary.

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        Most cited references 13

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        Scapular Winging.

        Scapular winging, one of the more common scapulothoracic disorders, is caused by a number of pathologic conditions. It can be classified as primary, secondary, or voluntary. Primary scapular winging may be due to neurologic injury, pathologic changes in the bone, or periscapular soft-tissue abnormalities. Secondary scapular winging occurs as a result of glenohumeral and subacromial conditions and resolves after the primary pathologic condition has been addressed. Voluntary scapular winging is not caused by an anatomic disorder and may be associated with underlying psychological issues. The evaluation and treatment of these three types are discussed.
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          The winged scapula.

          Twenty-five patients with 23 different types of winging of the scapula are described. A simple clinical and etiologic classification of the winged scapula is proposed based on the study of these patients in conjunction with a review of the literature. Winging of the scapula is either static or dynamic. Static winging is due to fixed deformity in the shoulder girdle, spine, or ribs. Dynamic winging is due to a neuromuscular disorder. The great variety of lesions that produce winging of the scapula may be classified anatomically into four types: Type I, nerve; Type II, muscle; Type III, bone; and Type IV, joint. Winging of the scapula is a surprisingly common physical sign, but because it is often asymptomatic it receives little attention. However, symptoms of pain, weakness, or cosmetic deformity may demand attention, and it is hoped that this classification will help in the diagnosis and assessment of these patients.
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            Stretch-induced spinal accessory nerve palsy.

            Left spinal accessory nerve palsy occurred in a young man when he quickly turned his head to the right while his shoulders were pulled down by heavy hand-held objects. Electrophysiologic studies demonstrated partial axonotmesis of the spinal accessory nerve branches innervating the sternocleidomastoid and upper and middle trapezius and complete axonotmesis of spinal accessory branches to the lower trapezius. There was a separate, although functionally minor, cervical plexus innervation of the lower trapezius.
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              Author and article information

              Affiliations
              [1 ]Fifth Orthopedic Department, KAT Hospital, 14561, Greece
              [2 ]Laboratory for Musculoskeletal System Research, Medical School, University of Athens, Greece
              Contributors
              Journal
              J Med Case Reports
              Journal of Medical Case Reports
              BioMed Central
              1752-1947
              2010
              27 May 2010
              : 4
              : 158
              2890620
              1752-1947-4-158
              20507553
              10.1186/1752-1947-4-158
              Copyright ©2010 Charopoulos et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

              This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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