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      Global, Regional, and National Prevalence, Incidence, and Disability-Adjusted Life Years for Oral Conditions for 195 Countries, 1990–2015: A Systematic Analysis for the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors


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          The Global Burden of Disease 2015 study aims to use all available data of sufficient quality to generate reliable and valid prevalence, incidence, and disability-adjusted life year (DALY) estimates of oral conditions for the period of 1990 to 2015. Since death as a direct result of oral diseases is rare, DALY estimates were based on years lived with disability, which are estimated only on those persons with unmet need for dental care. We used our data to assess progress toward the Federation Dental International, World Health Organization, and International Association for Dental Research’s oral health goals of reducing the level of oral diseases and minimizing their impact by 2020. Oral health has not improved in the last 25 y, and oral conditions remained a major public health challenge all over the world in 2015. Due to demographic changes, including population growth and aging, the cumulative burden of oral conditions dramatically increased between 1990 and 2015. The number of people with untreated oral conditions rose from 2.5 billion in 1990 to 3.5 billion in 2015, with a 64% increase in DALYs due to oral conditions throughout the world. Clearly, oral diseases are highly prevalent in the globe, posing a very serious public health challenge to policy makers. Greater efforts and potentially different approaches are needed if the oral health goal of reducing the level of oral diseases and minimizing their impact is to be achieved by 2020. Despite some challenges with current measurement methodologies for oral diseases, measurable specific oral health goals should be developed to advance global public health.

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          Most cited references15

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          Global goals for oral health 2020.

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            Changes in dental caries 1953-2003.

            In the first half of the 20th century, indices and methods of conducting surveys of the level of dental diseases were developed. Modern epidemiological studies began in the fifties and many reliable studies have been conducted after 1960. In the following decades, a substantial decline of caries prevalence was documented in the majority of the highly industrialized countries, with reductions of lifetime caries experience exceeding 75%. The decline comes to an end when low or very low levels of prevalence are reached. Children of low socioeconomic status and immigrants from outside Western Europe, however, generally have higher disease levels and may cause increases in caries prevalence. For this and other reasons, caries epidemiology will remain an indispensable part of dental public health. Copyright 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel
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              Trends in oral health status: United States, 1988-1994 and 1999-2004.

              This report presents national estimates and trends for a variety of oral health status measures for persons aged 2 years and older by sociodemographic and smoking status since the late 1980s in the United States. Data from the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III), 1988-1994 and from the NHANES 1999-2004 were used. These data sources were designed to provide information on the health and nutritional status of the civilian noninstitutionalized population in the United States. Information from oral health examination methods common to both survey periods were used to present prevalence estimates and for trend analyses. Statistical significance of differences between common estimates from each survey period was evaluated using two-sided t-tests. This report provides mean, percentile values, and standard errors for dental caries, dental sealants, incisal trauma, periodontal health, dental visits, perception of oral health status, tooth retention, and edentulism. Additional estimates for monitoring progress toward the Healthy People 2010 oral health objectives using NHANES source data are presented as well. For most Americans, oral health status has improved between 1988-1994 and 1999-2004. For seniors, edentulism and periodontitis has declined; for adults, improvements were seen in dental caries prevalence, tooth retention, and periodontal health; for adolescents and youths, dental sealant prevalence has increased and dental caries have decreased; however, for youths aged 2-5 years, dental caries in primary teeth has increased.

                Author and article information

                J Dent Res
                J. Dent. Res
                Journal of Dental Research
                SAGE Publications (Sage CA: Los Angeles, CA )
                1 February 2017
                April 2017
                : 96
                : 4
                : 380-387
                [1 ]Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA
                [2 ]Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA
                [3 ]Division of Population and Patient Health, King’s College London Dental Institute, London, UK
                [* ]Collaborators are listed in the Contributing Authors section at the end of this article.
                Author notes
                [*]W. Marcenes, Division of Population and Patient Health, King’s College London Dental Institute, Bessemer Road, Demark Hill, London SE5 9RW, UK. Email: marcenes.w@ 123456gmail.com
                © International & American Associations for Dental Research 2017

                This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License ( http://www.creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits any use, reproduction and distribution of the work without further permission provided the original work is attributed as specified on the SAGE and Open Access pages ( https://us.sagepub.com/en-us/nam/open-access-at-sage).

                Research Reports

                caries,periodontal diseases,tooth loss,dental public health,epidemiology,global health


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