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      Understanding resilience

      review-article

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          Abstract

          Resilience is the ability to adapt successfully in the face of stress and adversity. Stressful life events, trauma, and chronic adversity can have a substantial impact on brain function and structure, and can result in the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression and other psychiatric disorders. However, most individuals do not develop such illnesses after experiencing stressful life events, and are thus thought to be resilient. Resilience as successful adaptation relies on effective responses to environmental challenges and ultimate resistance to the deleterious effects of stress, therefore a greater understanding of the factors that promote such effects is of great relevance. This review focuses on recent findings regarding genetic, epigenetic, developmental, psychosocial, and neurochemical factors that are considered essential contributors to the development of resilience. Neural circuits and pathways involved in mediating resilience are also discussed. The growing understanding of resilience factors will hopefully lead to the development of new pharmacological and psychological interventions for enhancing resilience and mitigating the untoward consequences.

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          Most cited references148

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          Epigenetic programming by maternal behavior.

          Here we report that increased pup licking and grooming (LG) and arched-back nursing (ABN) by rat mothers altered the offspring epigenome at a glucocorticoid receptor (GR) gene promoter in the hippocampus. Offspring of mothers that showed high levels of LG and ABN were found to have differences in DNA methylation, as compared to offspring of 'low-LG-ABN' mothers. These differences emerged over the first week of life, were reversed with cross-fostering, persisted into adulthood and were associated with altered histone acetylation and transcription factor (NGFI-A) binding to the GR promoter. Central infusion of a histone deacetylase inhibitor removed the group differences in histone acetylation, DNA methylation, NGFI-A binding, GR expression and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) responses to stress, suggesting a causal relation among epigenomic state, GR expression and the maternal effect on stress responses in the offspring. Thus we show that an epigenomic state of a gene can be established through behavioral programming, and it is potentially reversible.
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            A neurotrophic model for stress-related mood disorders.

            There is a growing body of evidence demonstrating that stress decreases the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in limbic structures that control mood and that antidepressant treatment reverses or blocks the effects of stress. Decreased levels of BDNF, as well as other neurotrophic factors, could contribute to the atrophy of certain limbic structures, including the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex that has been observed in depressed subjects. Conversely, the neurotrophic actions of antidepressants could reverse neuronal atrophy and cell loss and thereby contribute to the therapeutic actions of these treatments. This review provides a critical examination of the neurotrophic hypothesis of depression that has evolved from this work, including analysis of preclinical cellular (adult neurogenesis) and behavioral models of depression and antidepressant actions, as well as clinical neuroimaging and postmortem studies. Although there are some limitations, the results of these studies are consistent with the hypothesis that decreased expression of BDNF and possibly other growth factors contributes to depression and that upregulation of BDNF plays a role in the actions of antidepressant treatment.
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              Ordinary magic. Resilience processes in development.

              The study of resilience in development has overturned many negative assumptions and deficit-focused models about children growing up under the threat of disadvantage and adversity. The most surprising conclusion emerging from studies of these children is the ordinariness of resilience. An examination of converging findings from variable-focused and person-focused investigations of these phenomena suggests that resilience is common and that it usually arises from the normative functions of human adaptational systems, with the greatest threats to human development being those that compromise these protective systems. The conclusion that resilience is made of ordinary rather than extraordinary processes offers a more positive outlook on human development and adaptation, as well as direction for policy and practice aimed at enhancing the development of children at risk for problems and psychopathology.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Front Behav Neurosci
                Front Behav Neurosci
                Front. Behav. Neurosci.
                Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                1662-5153
                15 February 2013
                2013
                : 7
                : 10
                Affiliations
                [1] 1Department of Psychiatry, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai NY, USA
                [2] 2Ben-Gurion University of the Negev Beer-Sheva, Israel
                [3] 3Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet Stockholm, Sweden
                Author notes

                Edited by: Michael V. Baratta, University of Colorado Boulder, USA

                Reviewed by: Cesar Venero, Universidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia, Spain; Lihong Wang, Duke University, USA

                *Correspondence: Aleksander A. Mathé, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Psychiatry SLSO, Karolinska University Hospital Huddinge, Stockholm, SE-14186, Sweden. e-mail: aleksander.mathe@ 123456ki.se
                Article
                10.3389/fnbeh.2013.00010
                3573269
                23422934
                5473616f-0a55-4aa2-9e63-eded85d38068
                Copyright © 2013 Wu, Feder, Cohen, Kim, Calderon, Charney and Mathé.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in other forums, provided the original authors and source are credited and subject to any copyright notices concerning any third-party graphics etc.

                History
                : 17 December 2012
                : 30 January 2013
                Page count
                Figures: 1, Tables: 1, Equations: 0, References: 206, Pages: 15, Words: 14860
                Categories
                Neuroscience
                Review Article

                Neurosciences
                resilience,stress,neurobiology,depression,ptsd
                Neurosciences
                resilience, stress, neurobiology, depression, ptsd

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