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      Remote epitaxy through graphene enables two-dimensional material-based layer transfer

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          Abstract

          Epitaxy—the growth of a crystalline material on a substrate—is crucial for the semiconductor industry, but is often limited by the need for lattice matching between the two material systems. This strict requirement is relaxed for van der Waals epitaxy, in which epitaxy on layered or two-dimensional (2D) materials is mediated by weak van der Waals interactions, and which also allows facile layer release from 2D surfaces. It has been thought that 2D materials are the only seed layers for van der Waals epitaxy. However, the substrates below 2D materials may still interact with the layers grown during epitaxy (epilayers), as in the case of the so-called wetting transparency documented for graphene. Here we show that the weak van der Waals potential of graphene cannot completely screen the stronger potential field of many substrates, which enables epitaxial growth to occur despite its presence. We use density functional theory calculations to establish that adatoms will experience remote epitaxial registry with a substrate through a substrate–epilayer gap of up to nine ångströms; this gap can accommodate a monolayer of graphene. We confirm the predictions with homoepitaxial growth of GaAs(001) on GaAs(001) substrates through monolayer graphene, and show that the approach is also applicable to InP and GaP. The grown single-crystalline films are rapidly released from the graphene-coated substrate and perform as well as conventionally prepared films when incorporated in light-emitting devices. This technique enables any type of semiconductor film to be copied from underlying substrates through 2D materials, and then the resultant epilayer to be rapidly released and transferred to a substrate of interest. This process is particularly attractive in the context of non-silicon electronics and photonics, where the ability to re-use the graphene-coated substrates allows savings on the high cost of non-silicon substrates.

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          Most cited references 27

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          Generalized Gradient Approximation Made Simple

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            Is Open Access

            Quantum ESPRESSO: a modular and open-source software project for quantum simulations of materials

            Quantum ESPRESSO is an integrated suite of computer codes for electronic-structure calculations and materials modeling, based on density-functional theory, plane waves, and pseudopotentials (norm-conserving, ultrasoft, and projector-augmented wave). Quantum ESPRESSO stands for "opEn Source Package for Research in Electronic Structure, Simulation, and Optimization". It is freely available to researchers around the world under the terms of the GNU General Public License. Quantum ESPRESSO builds upon newly-restructured electronic-structure codes that have been developed and tested by some of the original authors of novel electronic-structure algorithms and applied in the last twenty years by some of the leading materials modeling groups worldwide. Innovation and efficiency are still its main focus, with special attention paid to massively-parallel architectures, and a great effort being devoted to user friendliness. Quantum ESPRESSO is evolving towards a distribution of independent and inter-operable codes in the spirit of an open-source project, where researchers active in the field of electronic-structure calculations are encouraged to participate in the project by contributing their own codes or by implementing their own ideas into existing codes.
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              van der Waals epitaxy of MoS₂ layers using graphene as growth templates.

              We present a method for synthesizing MoS(2)/Graphene hybrid heterostructures with a growth template of graphene-covered Cu foil. Compared to other recent reports, (1, 2) a much lower growth temperature of 400 °C is required for this procedure. The chemical vapor deposition of MoS(2) on the graphene surface gives rise to single crystalline hexagonal flakes with a typical lateral size ranging from several hundred nanometers to several micrometers. The precursor (ammonium thiomolybdate) together with solvent was transported to graphene surface by a carrier gas at room temperature, which was then followed by post annealing. At an elevated temperature, the precursor self-assembles to form MoS(2) flakes epitaxially on the graphene surface via thermal decomposition. With higher amount of precursor delivered onto the graphene surface, a continuous MoS(2) film on graphene can be obtained. This simple chemical vapor deposition method provides a unique approach for the synthesis of graphene heterostructures and surface functionalization of graphene. The synthesized two-dimensional MoS(2)/Graphene hybrids possess great potential toward the development of new optical and electronic devices as well as a wide variety of newly synthesizable compounds for catalysts.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Nature
                Nature
                Springer Nature
                0028-0836
                1476-4687
                April 19 2017
                April 19 2017
                : 544
                : 7650
                : 340-343
                Article
                10.1038/nature22053
                © 2017
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